Advertisement

Organizational Factors in Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress

  • Shaun Stearns
  • Charles C. Benight
Chapter
  • 347 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter targets the challenges associated with addressing secondary trauma and job burnout at the organizational level (including military, business, and community-based milieu), rather than the more common individual-level focus. A review of critical organizational structure and cultural factors that affect burnout and potentially STS are offered. Leadership style is also reviewed along with a number of individually based organizational factors (e.g., role conflict) that negatively impact job burnout. Finally, we offer a set of best practices for ameliorating STS and job burnout from an organizational perspective.

Keywords

Burnout Occupational stress Military Leadership Organizational culture 

References

  1. Arbour, S., Kwantes, C. T., Kraft, J. M., & Boglarsky, C. A. (2014). Person-organization fit: Using normative behaviors to predict workplace satisfaction, stress and intentions to stay. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict, 18(1), 41–64.Google Scholar
  2. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands-resources theory. In P. Y. Chen & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Work and wellbeing (Vol. III, pp. 37–64). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  3. Bass, B. M., Waldman, D. A., Avolio, B. J., & Bebb, M. (1987). Transformational leadership and the falling dominoes effect. Group & Organization Management, 12(1), 73–87. doi: 10.1177/105960118701200106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bjørnstad, A. L. (2011). Exploring network organization in military contexts: Effects of flatter structure and more decentralized processes. Military Psychology, 23(3), 315–331. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2011.570595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowditch, J. L., & Buono, A. F. (2005). A primer on organizational behavior (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Burke, R. J., & Richardsen, A. R. (2001). Psychological burnout in organizations. Research and intervention. In R. T. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (2nd ed., Revised and Expanded, pp. 327–363). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  7. Cieslak, R., Anderson, V., Bock, J., Moore, B. A., Peterson, A. L., & Benight, C. C. (2013). Secondary traumatic stress among providers working with the military: Prevalence and its work- and exposure-related correlates. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(11), 917–925. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000034.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooke, R. A., & Szumal, J. L. (1993). Measuring normative beliefs and shared behavioral expectations in organizations: The reliability and validity of the organizational culture inventory. Psychological Reports, 72(3c), 1299–1330. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3c.1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. The Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621–656. doi: 10.2307/258593.Google Scholar
  10. Craig, C. D., & Sprang, G. (2010). Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 23(3), 319–339. doi: 10.1080/10615800903085818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daniels, A. K. (1969). The captive professional: Bureaucratic limitations in the practice of military psychiatry. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 10(4), 255–265. doi: 10.2307/2948433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies, H. O., Mannion, R., Jacobs, R., Powell, A. E., & Marshall, M. N. (2007). Exploring the relationship between senior management team culture and hospital performance. Medical Care Research and Review, 64(1), 46–65. doi: 10.1177/1077558706296240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Jonge, J., van Vegchel, N., Shimazu, A., Schaufeli, W., & Dormann, C. (2010). A longitudinal test of the demand–control model using specific job demands and specific job control. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(2), 125–133. doi: 10.1007/s12529-010-9081-1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Department of Defense. (2014). Military Health System Review – Final report (Final report to the Secretary of Defense). Retrieved from http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/140930_MHS_Review_Final_Report_Main_Body.pdf.
  15. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2014). VA mental health services: public report. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/docs/Mental_Health_Transparency_Report_11-24-14.pdf
  16. Engelhard, I. M., van den Hout, M. A., Weerts, J., Arntz, A., Hox, J. J., & McNally, R. J. (2007). Deployment-related stress and trauma in Dutch soldiers returning from Iraq prospective study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 140–145. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034884.Google Scholar
  17. Figley, C. R. (1978). Stress disorders among Vietnam veterans: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  18. Finley, E. P., Bollinger, M., Noël, P. H., Amuan, M. E., Copeland, L. A., Pugh, J. A., et al. (2015). A national cohort study of the association between the polytrauma clinical triad and suicide-related behavior among US Veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. American Journal of Public Health, 105(2), 380–387. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garcia, H. A., McGeary, C. A., Finley, E. P., McGeary, D. D., Ketchum, N. S., & Peterson, A. L. (2015). The influence of trauma and patient characteristics on provider burnout in VA post-traumatic stress disorder specialty programmes. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 1–16. doi: 10.1111/papt.12057.Google Scholar
  20. Garcia, H. A., McGeary, C. A., McGeary, D. D., Finley, E. P., & Peterson, A. L. (2014). Burnout in veterans health administration mental health providers in posttraumatic stress clinics. Psychological Services, 11(1), 50–59. doi: 10.1037/a0035643.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goff, B. S. N., Crow, J. R., Reisbig, A. M. J., & Hamilton, S. (2007). The impact of individual trauma symptoms of deployed soldiers on relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 344–353. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.21.3.344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goodman, E. A., Zammuto, R. F., & Gifford, B. D. (2001). The competing values framework: Understanding the impact of organizational culture on the quality of work life. Organization Development Journal, 19(3), 58–68.Google Scholar
  23. Greenberg, J. (2002). Managing behavior in organizations (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  24. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  25. Hartmann, C. W., Meterko, M., Rosen, A. K., Zhao, S., Shokeen, P., Singer, S., & Gaba, D. M. (2009). Relationship of hospital organizational culture to patient safety climate in the Veterans Health Administration. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(3), 320–338. doi: 10.1177/1077558709331812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hinkin, T. R., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2008). An examination of “nonleadership”: From laissez-faire leadership to leader reward omission and punishment omission. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1234–1248. doi: 10.1037/a0012875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hystad, S. W., Eid, J., & Brevik, J. I. (2011). Effects of psychological hardiness, job demands, and job control on sickness absence: A prospective study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 265–278. doi: 10.1037/a0022904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson, W. B., Bacho, R., Heim, M., & Ralph, J. (2006). Multiple-role dilemmas for military mental health care providers. Military Medicine, 171(4), 311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Oxford, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Kane, T. D., & Tremble, T. J. (2000). Transformational leadership effects at different levels of the Army. Military Psychology, 12(2), 137–160. doi: 10.1207/S15327876MP1202_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karasek Jr., R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(2), 285–308. doi: 10.2307/2392498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kraft, H. S. (2007). Rule number two: Lessons I learned in a combat hospital (1st ed.). New York: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  33. Lakey, B., Tardiff, T. A., & Drew, J. B. (1994). Negative social interactions: Assessment and relations to social support, cognition, and psychological distress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13(1), 42–62. doi: 10.1521/jscp.1994.13.1.42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Jiang, S. (2010). A preliminary examination of the relationship between organisational structure and emotional burnout among correctional staff. The Howard Journal of Criminal justice, 49(2), 125–146. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2311.2010.00606.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lambert, V. A., & Lambert, C. E. (2001). Literature review of role stress/strain on nurses: An international perspective. Nursing & Health Sciences, 3(3), 161–172. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-2018.2001.00086.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123–133. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leiter, M. P. (1988). Burnout as a function of communication patterns A study of a multidisciplinary mental health team. Group & Organization Management, 13(1), 111–128. doi: 10.1177/105960118801300112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leiter, M. P. (1991). The dream denied: Professional burnout and the constraints of human service organizations. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 32(4), 547–558. doi: 10.1037/h0079040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Linnerooth, P. J., Mrdjenovich, A. J., & Moore, B. A. (2011). Professional burnout in clinical military psychologists: Recommendations before, during, and after deployment. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42, 87–93. doi: 10.1037/a0022295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luby, C. C. (2012). Promoting military cultural awareness in an off-post community of behavioral and social support service providers. Advances in Social Work, 13(1), 67–82.Google Scholar
  42. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(2), 99–113. doi: 10.1002/job.4030020205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397–422. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moore, B. A., & Reger, G. M. (2006). Clinician to frontline soldier: A look at the roles and challenges of army clinical psychologists in Iraq. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 395–403. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morse, G., Salyers, M. P., Rollins, A. L., Monroe-DeVita, M., & Pfahler, C. (2012). Burnout in mental health services: A review of the problem and its remediation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39(5), 341–352. doi: 10.1007/s10488-011-0352-1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park, H. I., Jacob, A. C., Wagner, S. H., & Baiden, M. (2014). Job control and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Applied Psychology, 63(4), 607–642. doi: 10.1111/apps.12008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Patrician, P. A., Shang, J., & Lake, E. T. (2010). Organization determinants of work outcomes and quality care ratings among Army Medical Department registered nurses. Research in Nursing & Health, 33(2), 99–110. doi: 10.1002/nur.20370.Google Scholar
  48. Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., Rivers, A. J., Morgan, C. A., & Southwick, S. M. (2010). Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: The role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 120(1), 188–192. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.04.015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pithers, R. T. (1985). The roles of event contingencies and reinforcement in human autoshaping and omission responding. Learning and Motivation, 16(2), 210–237. doi: 10.1016/0023-9690(85)90013-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prosek, E. A., & Holm, J. M. (2014). Counselors and the military: When protocol and ethics conflict. The Professional Counselor, 4(2), 93–102. doi: 10.15241/eap.4.2.93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rizzo, J. R., House, R. J., & Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 150–163. doi: 10.2307/2391486.Google Scholar
  52. Rosenheck, R. A., & Fontana, A. F. (2007). Recent trends in VA treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders. Health Affairs, 26(6), 1720–1727. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.26.6.1720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rupert, P. A., & Morgan, D. J. (2005). Work setting and burnout among professional psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(5), 544–550. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.36.5.544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Salyers, M. P., Rollins, A. L., Kelly, Y.-F., Lysaker, P. H., & Williams, J. R. (2011). Job satisfaction and burnout among VA and community mental health workers. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(2), 69–75. doi: 10.1007/s10488-011-0375-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shoji, K., Bock, J., Cieslak, R., Zukowska, K., Luszczynska, A., & Benight, C. C. (2014). Cultivating secondary traumatic growth among healthcare workers: The role of social support and self-efficacy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(9), 831–846. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shoji, K., Lesnierowska, M., Smoktunowicz, E., Bock, J., Luszczynska, A., Benight, C. C., & Cieslak, R. (2015). What comes first, job burnout or secondary traumatic stress? Findings from two longitudinal studies from the U.S. and Poland. PLOS One, 10(8), e0136730 .http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136730 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Skogstad, A., Einarsen, S., Torsheim, T., Aasland, M. S., & Hetland, H. (2007). The destructiveness of laissez-faire leadership behavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(1), 80–92. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.12.1.80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sonnentag, S., Mojza, E. J., Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Reciprocal relations between recovery and work engagement: The moderating role of job stressors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4), 842–853. doi: 10.1037/a0028292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spector, P. E. (1998). A control theory of the job stress process. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organizational stress (pp. 153–169). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20(4), 316–334. doi: 10.1080/02678370601065893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Trevillion, K., Williamson, E., Thandi, G., Borschmann, R., Oram, S., & Howard, L. M. (2015). A systematic review of mental disorders and perpetration of domestic violence among military populations. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(9), 1329–1346. doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1084-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. U.S. Army. (2010). Army Health Promotion, Risk Reduction and Suicide Prevention (HP/RR/SP) report (report 2010). Retrieved from http://csf2.army.mil/downloads/HP-RR-SPReport2010.pdf
  63. Vallen, G. K. (1993). Organizational climate and burnout. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 34(1), 54–59. doi: 10.1016/0010-8804(93)90031-D.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. van der Doef, M., & Maes, S. (1998). The job demand-control(-support) model and physical health outcomes: A review of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 13(5), 909–936. doi: 10.1080/08870449808407440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zazzali, J. L., Alexander, J. A., Shortell, S. M., & Burns, L. R. (2007). Organizational culture and physician satisfaction with dimensions of group practice. Health Services Research, 42(3, part 1), 1150–1176. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00648.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zopiatis, A., & Constanti, P. (2010). Leadership styles and burnout: Is there an association? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(3), 300–320. doi: 10.1108/09596111011035927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaun Stearns
    • 1
  • Charles C. Benight
    • 1
  1. 1.Trauma, Health, & Hazards CenterUniversity of ColoradoColorado Springs, COUSA

Personalised recommendations