Foreign Policy by Proxy: Democracy and Human Rights Promotion through an Engagement with Civil Society
The European Union (EU) has intensified policy partnerships with civil society organizations (CSOs) in its external action. With regard to democracy promotion and human rights protection in particular, engagement with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has become a crucial issue in schemes such as the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights. However, this ‘foreign policy by proxy’ is becoming increasingly controversial and a number of countries are implementing countermeasures to protect their national sovereignty, such as limits to foreign funding, media censorship, and restrictions to NGO activities. This chapter first explores how the EU engages with CSOs in its foreign actions, and then examines comparatively the main controversies that these policies are generating.
KeywordsEuropean Union Civil Society Foreign Policy Participatory Democracy European Union Policy
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