A New Measure of the Expanded Present Time Perspective

  • Zara M. Zimbardo
  • Rose McDermott
  • Philip G. Zimbardo


Increased attention has been focused on the experience of an expanded present time perspective, but there has been no assessment tool to measure this particular time orientation. An established measure of time perspective, the ZTPI, assesses only two present-oriented perspectives: Present-Hedonistic and Present-Fatalistic. Two studies were conducted to develop and validate a third ZTPI subscale of Present-Expanded. This subscale is distinct from the two other present-oriented subscales, and also has clear relationships with measures of related constructs such as mindfulness, openness to experience, life satisfaction, and emotional intelligence. This new scale can be used in both research and personal practice.


Time perspective Expanded present Scale development Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Present time orientation Balanced time perspective 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zara M. Zimbardo
    • 1
  • Rose McDermott
    • 2
  • Philip G. Zimbardo
    • 3
  1. 1.California Institute of Integral StudiesSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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