Conclusions, Contributions to the Field and Recommendations for Further Research



The final chapter recaps the key notions explored in the monograph. The Lebanese media system, which El-Richani explores in the preceding chapters, is outlined once again and the importance of contextualizing the useful Hallin and Mancini framework is emphasized. The emerging model put forth in the penultimate chapter as well as the salient factors identified are once again described. The final section of the conclusion suggests recommendations for further research as well as potentialy similar systems such as the small Balkan states and Iraq that would suit the CriSPP Model—a variation of Hallin and Mancini’s Mediterranean or Polarised Pluralist Model.


Lebanon Lebanese media Polarised Pluralist Model Mediterranean Model Crisis Conflict Small states Weak states Pluralism Balkan states Iraq 


  1. Al-Marashi, I. (2007). The dynamics of Iraq’s media. In M. Price, D. Griffin & I. Al-Marashi. Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq: A Foreword and Two Reports (pp. 67–101). Occasional Paper Series. Philadelphia, PA: Center for Global Communication studies. Retrieved from:
  2. Al-Rawi, A. K. (2012). Media Practice in Iraq. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arfi, B. (2005). International Change and the Stability of Multiethnic States: Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Crises of Governance. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bieber, F. (2000). Bosnia-Herzegovina and Lebanon: Historical lessons of two multireligious states. Third World Quarterly, 21(2), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bieber, F. (2011). Building impossible states? State-building strategies and EU membership in the Western Balkans. Europe-Asia Studies, 63(10), 1783–1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, L. J., & Lampe, J. R. (2011). Embracing Democracy in the Western Balkans. From Postconflict Struggles toward European Integration. Washington, D.C: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hafez, K. (2007). The Myth of Media Globalization. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Halliday, F. (2005). The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kim, H. S., & Hama-Saeed, M. (2008). Emerging media in peril: Iraqi journalism in the post-Saddam Hussein era. Journalism Studies, 9(4), 578–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kleinsteuber, H. J. (2004). Comparing mass communication systems: Media formats, media contents, and media processes. In F. Esser, & B. Pfetsch (Eds.), Communication, Society, and Politics. Comparing Political Communication. Theories, Cases, and Challenges (pp. 64–86). Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kraidy, M., & Khalil, J. (2009). Arab Television Industries. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lewis, J., & Ritchie, J. (2007). Generalising from qualitative research. In J. Ritchie, & J. Lewis (Eds.), Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers (pp. 263–286). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Ordanoski, S. (2011). The story of Macedonian populism: “All we want is everything!”. In J. Rupnik (Ed.), The Western Balkans and the EU: “The Hour of Europe” (pp. 95–110). Paris: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Price, M. E. (2007). Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq: A Foreword and Two Reports. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  15. Radulović, M. (2011). Montenegro’s journey towards EU accession. In J. Rupnik (Ed.), The Western Balkans and The EU: “The Hour of Europe” (pp. 79–94). Paris: Institute for security studies.Google Scholar
  16. Rhodes, A. (2007). Ten Years of Media Support to the Balkans: An Assessment. Brussels: Media Task Force of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. Retrieved from
  17. Soloski, J. (1989). News reporting and professionalism: Some constraints on the reporting of the news. Media, Culture & Society, 11(2), 207–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stetka, V. (2012). From multinationals to business tycoons: Media ownership and journalistic autonomy in Central and Eastern Europe. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 17(4), 433–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Visiting Fellow, Centre for Lebanese Studies Academic Visitor Middle East CentreSt. Antony’s College, University of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations