The Middle East
This chapter situates developments in approaches to citizenship and education in historical, socio-political and cultural context in the Middle East, in order to explore and consider key features of educational systems in the region and the challenges faced. Not only has there been heightened focus internationally to the forms of education best suited to our changing globalising world in academia, policy and practice, but also member states in the Arab region are engaging with the implications of global citizenship education within their nation state and regional contexts. These visions vary given the different historical and cultural contexts, including legacies of colonialism, conflict, and most recently the ‘Arab Spring’. The demographic challenge of a region where over 40% of the population is under the age of 18 is discussed, as well as contexts of economic hardship and growing refugee populations, with unprecedented numbers of children and youth out of formal education. Examples of strategies and initiatives are given, and in conclusion, reflections on potential future development are considered.
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