Global Citizenship Education in Australasia

  • Andrew Peterson
  • Andrea Milligan
  • Bronwyn E. Wood
Chapter

Abstract

Peterson, Milligan and Wood examine global citizenship education in Australasia. Focusing on Australia and New Zealand, the chapter commences with relevant comments about the political, economic and social contexts which inform notions of citizenship/global citizenship. A critical analysis of current policy and curricular initiatives is presented, and it is suggested that global citizenship education in both nations are characterised by a piecemeal and under-defined approach. Drawing on empirical research it is argued that the patchy approach means that students’ experience of GCED is inconsistent and, at times, lacking a critical edge. The chapter concludes with some possible futures for GCED in Australasia.

References

  1. Andreotti, V. (2006). Soft versus critical global citizenship education. Policy & Practice—A Development Education Review, (3). Retrieved from: http://www.developmenteducationreview.com/issue3-focus4.
  2. Australian Agency for International Development. (2008). Global perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton, Vic.: Education Services Australia.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2013a). 2011 Census counts—Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples. Retrieved from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2075.0main+features32011.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2013b). Reflecting a nation: Stories from the 2011 census, 2012-2013. Retrieved from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2071.0main+features902012-2013.
  5. Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority. (2016). The Australian curriculum. Version 8.2. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/.
  6. Australian Government. (2011). Fact Sheet 6—Australia’s Multicultural Policy. Retrieved January 20‚ 2017‚ from https://www.mia.org.au/documents/item/232.
  7. Barber, B. (2005). Global governance from below. In D. Held (Ed.), Debating globalization (pp. 93–105.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barr, H., Graham, J., Hunter, P., Keown, P., & McGee, J. (1997). A position paper: Social studies in the New Zealand curriculum. New Zealand: School of Education, University of Waikato.Google Scholar
  9. Bolstad, R. (2011). Taking a “future focus” in education—What does it mean? An NZCER working paper from the Future-Focussed Issues in Education (FFI) project. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (2000). Pascallian meditations (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  11. Bradbery, D. (2014). Bridges to global citizenship: Ecologically sustainable futures utilising children’s literature in teacher education. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 29(2), 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burridge, N., Buchanan, J., & Chodkiewicz, A. (2014). Human rights and history education: An Australian study. The Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Citizens for Global Education. (2014). The Brussels proposal: Towards a new direction for education. Retrieved from: http://deeep.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/The_Brussels_Proposal.pdf.
  14. Davies, L. (2006). Global citizenship: Abstraction or framework for action? Educational Review, 58(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2016). Composition of Trade Australia. 2015. Canberra: Australian Government.Google Scholar
  16. Education Review Office. (2011). Directions for learning: the New Zealand Curriculum principles, and teaching as inquiry. Wellington: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ero.govt.nz/publications/directions-for-learning-the-new-zealand-curriculum-principles-and-teaching-as-inquiry/.
  17. Education Services Australia. (2011). Global perspective: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton, VIC: Education Services Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Jefferess, D. (2012). Unsettling cosmopolitanism: Global citizenship and the cultural politics of benevolence. In V. Andreotti & L. De Souza (Eds.), Postcolonial perspectives on global citizenship education (pp. 27–46). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Kelly, P. (2011). The march of the patriots: The struggle for modern Australia. Carlton, VIC: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Markus, A. (2014). Mapping social cohesion: The Scanlon foundation surveys, 2014. Retrieved from: http://scanlonfoundation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/2014-Mapping-Social-Cohesion-Report.pdf.
  21. MCEETYA. (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. MCEETYA.Google Scholar
  22. Milligan, A., Taylor, M., & Wood, B. E. (2011). Teachers’ conceptions of citizenship in New Zealand social studies education. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 287–302. doi: 10.1386/ctl.6.3.287_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mills, R., & Tomas, L. (2014). Integrating education for sustainability in preservice teacher education: A case study from a regional Australian University. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 29(2), 152–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ministry of Education. (1993). The New Zealand curriculum framework. Wellington, NZ: Learning.Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand curriculum. Wellington, NZ: Learning Media. Retrieved from: http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/.
  26. Ministry of Education. (2008a). Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. Wellington, NZ: Learning Media. Retrieved from: http://tmoa.tki.org.nz/Te-Marautanga-o-Aotearoa.
  27. Ministry of Education. (2008b). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Approaches to social inquiry. Wellington, NZ: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Education. (2009). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Being part of global communities. Wellington, NZ: Learning Media. Retrieved from: http://ssol.tki.org.nz/.
  29. Ministry of Education. (2011). The New Zealand curriculum update: The future focus principle (Issue 15). Retrieved from: http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Curriculum-resources/NZC-Updates.
  30. Ministry of Education. (2013a). The Māori education strategy: ka hikitia—Accelerating success 2013–2017. Retrieved from: http://www.education.govt.nz/ministry-of-education/overall-strategies-and-policies/the-maori-education-strategy-ka-hikitia-accelerating-success-20132017/.
  31. Ministry of Education. (2016a). Ambitious for New Zealand: The Ministry of Education four year plan 2016–2020. Retrieved from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/papers-presented/current-papers/document/51DBHOH_PAP69647_1/education-ministry-of-te-t%C4%81huhu-o-te-m%C4%81tauranga-four.
  32. Ministry of Education. (2016b). An interdependent whole: Capturing the thoughts of tomorrow’s global citizens. New Zealand Education Gazette. March 21. Retrieved from: http://www.edgazette.govt.nz/Articles/Article.aspx?ArticleId=9244.
  33. New Zealand Treasury. (2016). New Zealand economic and financial overview. Retrieved from: http://www.treasury.govt.nz/economy/overview/2015/20.htm.
  34. Newton, J., Milligan, A., Yates, E., & Meyer, L. (2010). Global-mindedness and intercultural competence: Two responses to the challenge of educating for a linguistically and culturally diverse world. In V. Green & S. Cherrington (Eds.), Delving into diversity: An international exploration of issues of diversity in education (pp. 287–299). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  35. Newton, J., Yates, E. S., Shearn, S., & Nowitzki, W. (2010). Intercultural communicative language teaching: Implications for effective teaching and learning. Report to the Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/curriculum/76637/introduction.
  36. Osler, A. (2011). Teacher interpretations of citizenship education: National identity, cosmopolitan ideals and political realities. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oxfam. (2015). Resources for teachers. https://www.oxfam.org.au/act/resources-for-teachers/. Accessed July 15, 2016.
  38. Peterson, A., & Bentley, B. (2016). Securitisation and/or westernisation: Dominant discourses of Australian values and the implications for teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(2), 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peterson, A., & Warwick, P. (2014). Global learning and education: Key concepts and effective practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Pike, G. (2008). Global education. In J. Arthur, I. Davies, & C. Hahn (Eds.), The Sage handbook of education for citizenship and democracy. London.: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Reid, A., Gill, J., & Sears, A. (2010). Globalization, the nation-state and the citizen. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Reynolds, R., Brown, J., Bradbery, D., Donnelly, D., Ferguson-Patrick, K., & Macqueen, S. (2012). Globalizing teacher training: Embedding global education perspectives in multi-disciplinary pre-service teacher programs. Paper presented at the Joint AARE APERA International Conference, Sydney.Google Scholar
  43. Samu, T. W. (2011). Understanding the lines in the sand: Diversity, its discourses and building a responsive education system. Curriculum Matters, 7, 175–194.Google Scholar
  44. Shaver, J. H., Troughton, G., Sibley, C. G., & Bulbulia, J. A. (2016). Religion and the unmaking of prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a large national sample. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sibley, C. G., & Ward, C. (2013). Measuring the preconditions for a successful multicultural society: A barometer test of New Zealand. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(6), 700–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sibley, C. G., Hoverd, W. J., & Liu, J. H. (2011). Pluralistic and monocultural facets of New Zealand national character and identity. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 40, 19–29.Google Scholar
  47. Spoonley, P. (2015). New diversity, old anxieties in New Zealand: The complex identity politics and engagement of a settler society. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(4), 650–661. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2015.980292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Statistics New Zealand. (2013a). 2013 Census QuickStats about Māori. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/quickstats-about-maori-english.aspx.
  49. Statistics New Zealand. (2013b). 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity. Retrieved from: http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/quickstats-culture-identity.aspx.
  50. Tallon, R. (2012). Emotion and agency within NGO Development Education: What is at work and what is at stake in the classroom? International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, 4(2), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ward, C., & Liu, J. H. (2012). Ethno-cultural conflict in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Balancing indigenous rights and multicultural responsibilities. In D. Landis & R. D. Albert (Eds.), Handbook of ethnic conflict: International perspectives (pp. 45–69). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ward, C., & Masgoret, A.-M. (2008). Attitudes toward immigrants, immigration and multiculturalism in New Zealand. International Migration Review, 42, 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. White, C., & Openshaw, R. (Eds.). (2005). Democracy at the crossroads: International perspectives on critical global citizenship education. USA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  54. Wood, B. E. (2012). Scales of citizenship: New Zealand teacher’s diverse perceptions and practices. International Journal of Progressive Education, 8(3), 77–93. Retrieved from http://inased.org/v8n3/ijpev8n3.pdf.
  55. Wood, B. E. (2013). Participatory capital: Bourdieu and citizenship education in diverse school communities. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 35(4), 578–597. doi: 10.1080/01425692.2013.777209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Peterson
    • 1
  • Andrea Milligan
    • 2
  • Bronwyn E. Wood
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationCanterbury Christ Church UniversityCanterburyEngland
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations