Probation: Looking Out and Looking In

  • David SmithEmail author


Drawing on a variety of published work, the chapter suggests that a productive approach to understanding probation practice is to see the immediate relationship between worker and client in the context of the wider system of criminal justice in which both are enmeshed. It further argues that a sense of the wider community context has allowed for creative and innovative probation practice, in community development, interagency working, crime prevention, restorative justice, and responding to racially motivated offending. The chapter tries to celebrate the creativity and commitment of probation workers over the years while acknowledging the damaging effect of government policies on probation at the end of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first century.


Criminal Justice Criminal Justice System Crime Prevention Restorative Justice Hate Crime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Blagg, H., & Smith, D. (1989). Crime, penal policy and social work. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  2. Bottoms, A. E. (1989). The place of the probation service in the criminal justice system. In Central council of probation committees, The Madingley papers II. Cambridge: University Board of Extra-Mural Studies.Google Scholar
  3. Bottoms, A. E., & McWilliams, W. (1979). A non-treatment paradigm for probation practice. British Journal of Social Work, 9(2), 159–202.Google Scholar
  4. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burney, E., & Rose, G. (2002). Racist offences – How is the law working? The implementation of the legislation on racially aggravated offences in the crime and disorder act 1998 (Home Office Research Study 244). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  6. Currie, E. (1988). Two visions of community crime prevention. In T. Hope, & M. Shaw (Eds.), Communities and crime reduction. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  7. Fullwood, C. (1989). Probation, community and inter-agency dimensions: A future look. In R. Shaw, & K. Haines (Eds.). The criminal justice system: A central role for the probation service. Cambridge: Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  8. Home Office. (1984). Statement of national objectives and priorities. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  9. Lobley, D., & Smith, D. (2007). Persistent young offenders: An evaluation of two projects. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
  10. MacIntyre, A. (1985). After virtue: A study in moral theory (2nd). London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  11. Matza, D. (1969). Becoming deviant. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  12. McAra, L., & McVie, S. (2007). Youth justice? The impact of system contact on patterns of desistance from offending. European Journal of Criminology, 4(3), 315–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McBride, P. I. (1978). A probation team at Altrincham. Manchester: Greater Manchester Probation and After-Care Service.Google Scholar
  14. Midland Regional Staff Development Office (Ed.). (1978). Teamwork in probation?. Birmingham: Midland RSDO.Google Scholar
  15. Mills, C. W. (1970). The sociological imagination. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  16. Nellis, M. (1995). Towards a new view of probation values. In R. Hugman, & D. Smith (Eds.). Ethical issues in social work. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Palmer, J., & Smith, D. (2010). Promoting human dignity: An evaluation of a programme for racially motivated offenders. Probation Journal, 57(4), 368–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ray, L., Smith, D., & Wastell, L. (2004). Shame, rage and racist violence. British Journal of Criminology, 44(3), 350–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sampson, A., & Smith, D. (1992). Probation and community crime prevention. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(2), 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Scheff, T. J. (1994). Bloody revenge: Emotions, nationalism and war. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  21. Scheff, T. J. (1997). Emotions, the social bond and human reality: Part/whole analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sibbitt, R. (1997). The perpetrators of racial harassment and racial violence, Home Office Research Study 176. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, C. (1978). Probation in the Vauxhall Community Services Centre. Liverpool: Merseyside Probation and After-Care Service.Google Scholar
  24. Smith, D. (1979). Probation officers in prison. In D. Brandon, & B. Jordan (Eds.), Creative social work. Blackwell: Oxford.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, D. (1990). Crime prevention: The past ten years. In R. Marsh (Ed.), Crime prevention and the probation service. Conference papers. Birmingham: West Midlands Probation Service.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, D. (1993). Social work in prisons. Practice, 6(2), 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith, D. (1994). The home office regional criminal justice conferences May 1990–March 1993. Liverpool: Home Office Special Conferences Unit.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, D. (2006a) What might work with racially motivated offenders? In S. Lewis, P. Raynor, D. Smith, & A. Wardak (Eds.), Race and probation. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, D. (2006b). Making sense of psychoanalysis in criminological theory and probation practice. Probation Journal, 53(4), 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith, D. (2010). Out of care 30 years on. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 10(2), 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith, D., & Blagg, H. (1989). The Cumbrian reparation scheme. British Journal of Social Work, 19(3), 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith, D., Blagg, H., & Derricourt, N. (1988). Mediation in South Yorkshire. British Journal of Criminology, 28(3), 378–395.Google Scholar
  33. Thorpe, D. H. (1978). Intermediate treatment. In N. Tutt (Ed.), Alternative strategies for coping with crime. Oxford/London: Basil Blackwell and Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
  34. Thorpe, D. H., Smith, D., Green, C. J., & Paley, J. H. (1980). Out of care: The community support of juvenile offenders. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  35. Truax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. (1967). Towards effective counseling and psychotherapy. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  36. Tuck, M. (1987). Crime prevention: A shift in concept. In Home office research and planning unit research bulletin No. 20. London: Home Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations