Advertisement

Rights-Based Legislation in Practice: A View from Southern Orissa

Chapter
  • 309 Downloads
Part of the Rethinking International Development series book series (RID)

Abstract

In recent years, rights-based legislation has emerged as a critical site of contestation for communities struggling against dispossession and claiming their rights to land and forests (see Nielsen and Nilsen 2014; Kumar and Kerr 2012). In response to the increasing violation of the legal rights of the rural poor by powerful actors, the judicialisation of politics—that is, the increasing reliance on the courts and judicial means for addressing questions of livelihood and fundamental rights—has emerged as a significant phenomenon (see Randeria 2007). Comaroff and Comaroff (2006: 26) rightly argue that with the emergence of this new form of mobilisation, “politics itself is migrating to the courts”. This new terrain of engagement has variously been labelled “lawfare” (Sundar 2009: 3) or “law struggles” (Sundar 2011: 188), and involves contention over law and the attempts of ordinary people to define the rule of law, and ensure that the laws are observed. In doing so, the rural communities often operate according to the logics of what O’Brien and Li (2006) have called “rightful resistance”—that is, a form of contentious politics that operates near the boundary of authorised channels and appeals to elites’ commitment to laws and policies.

Keywords

Rural Community Mining Company Land Acquisition Local Villager Mining Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Action Aid. (2007). Vedanta cates: Busting the Myths about Vedanta’s operation in Lanjigarh, India. Action Aid International.Google Scholar
  2. Aggarwal, M. (2015). Centre pulls up Odisha govt for violating Forest Rights Act. Live Mint, 11 September.Google Scholar
  3. Burke, J. (2012, 8 April). Indian tribe’s avatar-like battle against mining firm reaches Supreme Court. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  4. Business Standard. (2012, 21 March). Orissa diverts 12,000 Ha forest land for mining industries.Google Scholar
  5. Choudhury, K. (2013, 8 September). Congress credits Rahul with Niyamagiri tribals’ victory. Business Standard.Google Scholar
  6. Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. L. (2006). Law and disorder in the postcolony. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dandekar, A., & Choudhury, C. (2010). PESA, Left-wing extremism and governance: Concerns and challenges in India’s tribal districts. Institute of Rural Management, Anand.Google Scholar
  8. Das, P. (2015, 12 May). Madhya Pradesh witnessed highest ever stalling of investment projects in 2014–15: Revival of investment strong in AP, Gujarat, Karnataka and WB, Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy (CMIE).Google Scholar
  9. Dash, J. (2015, 5 November). Mining at Niyamagiri remains a pipedream. Business Standard.Google Scholar
  10. Dash, J., & Das, K. N. (2015, 28 October). Orissa looks to revive bauxite mining in Niyamagiri hills. Reuters.Google Scholar
  11. Equations. (2007): This is our homeland: A collection of essays on the betrayal of Adivasi rights in India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  12. Goswami, U. A., & Mohanty, M. (2014, 11 January). Environment ministry rejects Vedanta’s mining proposal in Niyamagiri. Economic Times.Google Scholar
  13. Government of India. (2015). Indian minerals yearbook [Part-I], state reviews (Odisha), 2015: 11/2-11/16. Ministry of Mines: Indian Bureau of Mines.Google Scholar
  14. Hopkins, K. (2010, 8 February). Indian tribe appeals for Avatar director’s help to stop Vedanta. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  15. Jena, M. (2006). Draft resettlement and rehabilitation policy. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(5), 384–387.Google Scholar
  16. Kumar, K. (2014). Confronting extractive capital: Social and environmental movements in Odisha. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(14), 65–73.Google Scholar
  17. Kumar, K., & Kerr, J. M. (2012). Democratic assertions: The making of India’s recognition of Forest Rights Act. Development and Change, 43(3), 751–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Massey, D. (2005). For space. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Mathur, H. M. (2013). Displacement and resettlement in India: The human cost of development. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Mishra, B. (2010). Agriculture, industry and mining in Orissa in the post-liberalisation era: An inter-district and inter-state panel analysis. Economic and political Weekly, 45(20), 45–68.Google Scholar
  21. Mishra, B., & Mishra, S. (2014). Mining and industrialisation: Dangerous portents. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(14), 56–65.Google Scholar
  22. Mishra, D. K. (2011). Behind dispossession: State, land grabbing and agrarian change in rural Orissa. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6–8 April 2011, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  23. Mitra, S. (2012, 3 August). Smoke hangs over Niyamagiri: A travelogue. Sanhati.Google Scholar
  24. Mohanty, M. (2015, 22 September). OMC writes to environment ministry seeking guidance on Niyamgiri bauxite deposit. The Economic Times.Google Scholar
  25. Mondikota, A. K. (2010). Decentralised governance in tribal India: Negotiating space between the state, community and civil society. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Nielsen, K. B. (2015). Law and larai: The (de)judicialisation of subaltern resistance in West Bengal. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 45(4), 618–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nielsen, K. B., & Nilsen, A. G. (2014). Law struggles and hegemonic processes in neoliberal India: Gramscian reflections on land acquisition. Globalizations, 12(2), 203–216.Google Scholar
  28. O’Brien, K. J., & Li, L. (2006). Rightful resistance in rural China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Padel, F., & Das, S. (2010). Out of the earth: East India Adivasis and the aluminium cartel. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  30. Pandey, B. (2008). The Kalinganagar tragedy: Development goal or development malaise. Social Change, 38(4), 609–626.Google Scholar
  31. Pattnaik, S. (2006). Jagatikarana Prusthibhumire Adibasinka Bisthapana Samasya (“Problem of Adivasi’s displacement in context of Globalisation’). Samadrushti. 1–15 April Issue. Bhubaneswar.Google Scholar
  32. Ramanathan, U. (2009). A word on eminent domain. In L. Mehta (Ed.), Displaced by development: Confronting marginalisation and gender injustice. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Randeria, S. (2007). De-politicization of democracy and judicialization of politics. Theory, culture and society: explorations in critical social science, 24–(4), 38–44.Google Scholar
  34. Rebbapragada, R., & Kalluri, B. (2009). The Samatha judgement: Upholding the rights of Adivasi women. In L. Mehta (Ed.), Displaced by development. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  35. Ruparelia, S. (2013). India’s new rights agenda: Genesis, promises, risks. Pacific Affairs, 86, 569–590.Google Scholar
  36. Santos, B. S. (2002). Toward a new legal common sense: Law, globalization and emancipation (2nd ed.). London: Butterworths LexisNexis.Google Scholar
  37. Satapathy, D. (2014, 16 October). Odisha wants Niyamgiri gram sabha polls again. Business Standard.Google Scholar
  38. Saxena Committee Report. (2010). Report on the four-member committee for investigation into the proposal submitted by the Orissa mining company for bauxite mining in Niyamagiri. Ministry of Environment and Forests: Government of India.Google Scholar
  39. Shrivastava, K. S. (2014, 15 October). A new roadblock. Down to Earth.Google Scholar
  40. Singh, C. (1986). Common property and common poverty: Indian forests, forest dwellers and the law. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Singh, H. S. (2010, 9 January). ‘Avatar’ a reality for Indian tribe fighting mining company. CNN.Google Scholar
  42. Sixth Citizen’s Report (2008). Rich land, Poor people: Is sustainable mining Possible? State of India’s Environment: Mining. New Delhi: Center for Science and Environment.Google Scholar
  43. Sundar, N. (2009). Legal grounds: Natural resources, identity and the law in Jharkhand. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Sundar, N. (2011). The rule of law and the rule of property: Law struggles and the neo-liberal state in India. In A. Gupta & K. Sivaramakrishnan (Eds.), The state in India after Liberalization: Interdisciplinary perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. UNDP. (2012). Panchayati Raj (Extension to scheduled areas) Act of 1996: Policy brief. New Delhi: UNDP.Google Scholar
  46. Variety. (2010, 8 February). Appeal to James Cameron: Avatar is fantasy … and real. Advertisement by Survival International.Google Scholar
  47. World Bank. (2008). India: Orissa in Transition—Challenges for 2006–2010. Washington, DC: World Bank Document.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations