Part of the Rethinking International Development series book series (RID)


We began this book by asking to what extent social movements in India have been capable of deepening democracy in such a way as to enhance the political capacities of subaltern groups and thereby enable them to contest and challenge marginality, stigma, and exploitation. Underlying this question has been a view of democracy that holds that democracy is not reducible to its formal components alone, but rather encompasses both effective and substantive qualities. Insofar as the substantive dimensions of democracy centre crucially on “the political and economic integration of subordinate classes” (Heller 2000: 486) we have foregrounded this aspect without, however, losing sight of how the mutually reinforcing connections between all three dimensions of democracy are forged via different trajectories of mobilization from below in specific contexts. It has been from this starting point that our exploration of the interrelationship between social movements, state formation, and democracy in India has proceeded.


Social Movement Land Acquisition Formal Democracy Political Capacity Subordinate Classis 
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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OsloNorway
  2. 2.BjørkestølLillesandNorway

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