Cultural Frameworks



In synthesizing existing cultural models and frameworks, Henson identifies several cultural orientations particularly relevant to the workplace: formality, authoritarianism, structure, time orientation, assertiveness, individualism, directness, and expressiveness. He explains each of these orientations; how they influence the organizational basics of structure, rewards, and processes; and offers recommendations for global leaders on how to adapt their behaviors and styles in different cultures without abandoning their core values and beliefs. At the same time, he explains how global leaders can avoid stereotyping while taking into account cultural differences when working with global colleagues and business partners.


Cultural Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Individualistic Culture Global Leader Workplace Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adler, Nancy J. 2008. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, Fifth edn. Mason, OH: South-Western Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, Gordon. 1979. The Nature of Prejudice. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Alter, Adam. 2013. Drunk Tank Pink. New York: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  4. Altmeyer, Robert. 1996. The Authoritarian Specter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Banaji, Mahzarin, and Anthony Greenwald. 2013. Blindspot. New York: Delacorte Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brewer, Paul, and Sunil Venaik. 2011. Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies 42(3): 436–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Comfort, Jeremy, and Peter Franklin. 2014. The Mindful International Manager: How to Work Effectively Across Cultures. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  8. Digden, Bob. 2011. Communicating Across Cultures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Earley, Christopher. 1993. East Meets West Meets Mideast: Further Explorations of Collectivistic and Individualistic Work Groups. Academy of Management Journal 36(2): 319–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Earley, Christopher, and Miriam Erez. 1997. The Transplanted Executive. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fernandez, Denise Rotondo, Dawn S. Carlson, Lee P. Stepina, and Joel D. Nicholson. 1997. Hofstede’s Country Classification 25 Years Later. The Journal of Social Psychology 137(1): 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gannon, Martin J. 2007. Paradoxes of Culture and Globalization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Gelfand, Michele, Lisa Nishii, and Jana Raver. 2006. On the Nature and Importance of Cultural Tightness-Looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology 91: 1225–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gelfand, Michele, et al. 2011. Differences Between Tight and Loose Societies: A 33-Nation Study. Science 33: 1100–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldsmith, Marshall. 2007. What Got You Here Won’t Get You There: How Successful People Become Even More Successful. New York: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  16. Gunia, Brian C., Jeanne M. Brett, Amit K. Nandkeolyar, and Dishan Kamdar. 2011. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology 96(4): 774–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hall, Edward. 2013. The Silent Language. Reissued. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  18. Hofstede, Geert. 2001. Culture’s Consequences. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Holtgraves, Thomas. 1997. Styles of Language Use: Individual and Cultural Variability in Conversational Indirectness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73: 624–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. House, Robert J., Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta. 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Ibarra, Herminia. 2015a. The Authenticity Paradox. Harvard Business Review 93(1/2): 53–59.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 2015b. Act Like a Leader, Think Like a Leader. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kagitcibasi, Cigdem. 1997. Individualism and Collectivism. In Berry, John, Marshall Segall, and Cigdem Kagitcibasi (Eds.). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 3, Second edn, 1–49. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  24. Kemmelmeier, Markus, Eugene Burstein, Krum Krumov, Petia Genkova, Chie Kanagawa, Matthew Hirshberg, Hans-Peter Erb, Grzyna Wieczorkowska, and Kimberly Noels. 2003. Individualism, Collectivism and Authoritarianism in Seven Societies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 34: 304–322.Google Scholar
  25. Kemp, Linzi J., and Paul Williams. 2013. In Their Own Time and Space: Meeting Behaviour in the Gulf Arab Workplace. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 13(2): 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kittler, Markus, David Rygl, and Alex Mackinnon. 2011. Beyond Culture or Beyond Control? Reviewing the Use of Hall’s High-/Low-Context Concept. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 11(1): 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lane, Henry, Martha Maznevski, Joseph DiStefano, and Joerg Dietz. 2009. International Management Behavior: Leading with a Global Mindset, Sixth edn. Great Britain: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Little, Brian. 2014. Me, Myself and Us: The Science of Personality and the Art of Well-Being. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  29. Markus, Hazel and Shinobu Kitayama. 1991. Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation. Psychological Review 98: 224–253.Google Scholar
  30. McCall, Morgan, and George Hollenbeck. 2002. Developing Global Executives: The Lessons of International Experience. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  31. McKersie, Robert, and Richard Walton. 1992. A Retrospective on the Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations. Journal of Organizational Behavior 13(3): 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Metcalf, Lynn E., Allan Bird, Mark F. Peterson, Mahesh Shankarmahesh, and Terri R. Lituchy. 2007. Cultural Influences in Negotiations A Four Country Comparative Analysis. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(2): 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Migliore, Laura. 2011. Relation Between Big Five Personality Traits and Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: Samples from the USA and India. Cross-Cultural Management: An International Journal 18(1): 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Minguet, Luc. 2014. Creating a Culturally Sensitive Corporation. Harvard Business Review 92(9): 78.Google Scholar
  35. Minkov, Michael, and Geert Hofstede. 2014. A Replication of Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension across Nationally Representative Samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 14(2): 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Molinsky, Andrew. 2007. Cross-Cultural Code-Switching: The Psychological Challenges of Adapting Behavior in Foreign Cultural Interactions. Academy of Management Review 32(2): 622–640.Google Scholar
  37. Molinsky, Andy. 2013. Global Dexterity: How to Adapt Your Behavior Across Cultures Without Losing Yourself in the Process. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  38. Na, Jinkyung, Michal Kosinski, and David J. Stillwell. 2015. When a New Tool Is Introduced in Different Cultural Contexts: Individualism–Collectivism and Social Network on Facebook. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46(3): 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nisbett, Richard. 2010. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently … and Why. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  40. Pritchard, Robert, and Satoris Youngcourt. 2008. Culture, Feedback, and Motivation. In The Influence of Culture on Human Resource Management Processes and Practices, eds. Dianna Stone and Eugene Stone-Romero, 157–180. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  41. Sanchez-Burks, Jeffery and Eric Uhlmann. 2014. Outlier Nation: In The Cultural Psychology of American Workways, eds. Masaki Yuki and Marilynn Brewer, 121–142. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey, Fiona Lee, Incheol Choi, Richard Nisbett, Shuming Zhao, and Jasook Koo. 2003. Conversing Across Cultures: East-West Communication Styles in Work and Nonwork Contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85(2): 363–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sanchez-Runde, Carlos, Luciara Nardon, and Richard M. Steers. 2011. Looking Beyond Western Leadership Models: Implications for Global Managers. Organizational Dynamics 40(3): 207–213.Google Scholar
  44. Sandal, Gro M., et al. 2014. Intended Self-Presentation Tactics in Job Interviews: A 10-Country Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 45(6): 939–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schulte, Brigid. 2014. Overwhelmed: How to Work, Love, and Play When No One Has the Time. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  46. Singelis, Theodore, Harry Triandis, Dharm Bhawuk, and M. Michele Gelfand. 1995. Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical and Measurement Refinement. Cross-Cultural Research 29(3): 240–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sinha, Durganand. 1997. Indigenizing Psychology. In Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol 1, Second edn, eds. John Berry, Ype Poortinga, and Janek Pandey, 129–170. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, Peter B., Hai Juan Huang, Charles Harb, and Claudio Torres. 2011. How Distinctive Are Indigenous Ways of Achieving Influence? A Comparative Study of Guanxi, Wasta, Jeitinho, and ‘Pulling Strings.’ Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 43(1): 135–150.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, Peter B., S. Arzu Wasti, Lusine Grigoryan, Mustafa Achoui, Olwen Bedford, Pawan Budhwar, Nadya Lebedeva, Chan Hoong Leong, and Claudio Torres. 2014. Are Guanxi-Type Supervisor–Subordinate Relationships Culture-General? An Eight-Nation Test of Measurement Invariance. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 45(6): 921–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Steers, Richard, Luciara Nardon, and Carlos Sanchez-Runde. 2009. Culture and Organization Design: Strategy, Structure, and Decision-Making. In Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work, eds. Rabi Bhagat and Richard Steers. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Tinsley, Catherine. 1998. Models of Conflict Resolution in Japanese, German and American Cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology 83(2): 316–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Triandis, Harry. 1994. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to the Study of Collectivism and Individualism. In Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Applications, eds. Uichol Kim, Harry Triandis, Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Sang-Chin Choi, and Gene Yoon. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 1995. Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  54. Triandis, Harry, and Michele Gelfand. 1998. Converging Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74: 118–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Triandis, Harry, Richard Brislin, and C. Harry Hui. 1988. Cross-Cultural Training Across the Individualism-Collectivism Divide. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 12(3): 269–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Trompenaars, Frans, and Charles Hampden-Turner. 1998. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business, Second edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  57. Uz, Irem. 2015. The Index of Cultural Tightness and Looseness Among 68 Countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46(3): 319–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vromans, Pauline, van Engen Marloes, and Stefan Mol. 2013. Presumed Cultural Similarity Paradox. Journal of Global Mobility 1(2): 219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Watkins, Michael. 2013. Your Next Move: The Leader’s Guide to Navigating Major Career Transitions. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  60. Yamagishi, Toshio, Karen Cook, and Motoki Watabe. 1998. Uncertainty, Trust, and Commitment Formation in the United States and Japan. American Journal of Sociology 104(1): 165–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zellmer-Bruhn, Mary, and Cristina Gibson. 2006. Multinational Organization Context: Implications for Team Learning and Performance. Academy of Management Journal 49(3): 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rutgers Business SchoolNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations