• Anna Katharina Stahl
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)


The last chapter makes a cross-case comparison of the bilateral, multilateral and trilateral dialogues. It explains the failure of the EU’s foreign policy of engagement with China and Africa, and highlights current obstacles to EU-China-Africa trilateral relations. Finally, it identifies pathways for further research to consolidate the new research field of EU-China-Africa trilateral relations, and compares the European policy response with US reactions to China’s rise in Africa.


  1. Adebajo, A. and K. Whiteman (2012), The EU and Africa: From Eurafrique to Afro-Europa, London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  2. Algieri, F. (2008), “It’s the System that Matters: Institutionalization and Making of EU Policy Toward China”, in D. Shambaugh, E. Sandschneider and Z. Hong (eds.), China-Europe Relations: Perceptions, Policies and Prospects, Abingdon and New York: Routledge, pp. 66–83.Google Scholar
  3. Austermann, F. S. (2012b), “Towards a ‘Unitary Actor’? Perceptions of China’s Role in Africa Across EU Institutions”, in J. Van der Harst and P. C. M. Swieringa (eds.), China and the European Union: Concord or Conflict?, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing BV, pp. 15–35.Google Scholar
  4. Barton, B. and A. d. Bellefroid (2015), “China and the European Union in Sub-Saharan Africa”, in J. Wouters, J.-C. Defraigne and M. Burnay (eds.), China, the European Union and the Developing World: A Triangular Relationship, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 371–401.Google Scholar
  5. Biscop, S. (2015), “Global and Operational: A New Strategy for EU Foreign and Security Policy”, IAI Working Paper 15/27, July 2015, Rome: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI).Google Scholar
  6. Bräutigam, D. (2008), “China’s African Aid: Transatlantic Challenges, A Report to the German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington D.C.: The German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF).Google Scholar
  7. Browne, S. and T. G. Weiss (2014), “Emerging Powers and the UN Development System: Canvassing Global Views”, Third World Quarterly, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1894–1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, H. (2008), “China in Africa: Challenging US Global Hegemony”, Third World Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, K. M. (2016), The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia, New York: Twelve, Hachette Book Group.Google Scholar
  10. Carbone, M. (2011), “The European Union and China’s rise in Africa: Competing Visions, External Coherence and Trilateral Cooperation”, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 203–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmody, P. R. and F. Y. Owusu (2007), “Competing Hegemons? Chinese versus American Geo-economic Strategies in Africa”, Political Geography, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 505–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambas, M. I., P. N. Lyman, J. Zhong, J. Goodman (2017), “Where Beijing, Washington, and African Governments Can Work Together”, Foreign Affairs. 22 June 2017.Google Scholar
  13. Chinese Government (2015), Vision and Actions on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, Beijing, 28 March 2015.Google Scholar
  14. Christensen, T. J. (2015), The China Challenge: Shaping the Choices of a Rising Power, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  15. Cooke, J. G. and J. S. Morrison (2009), U.S. Africa Policy beyond the Bush Years: Critical Challenges for the Obama Administration, Washington, D.C.:The Centre for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
  16. Cornelissen, S., F. Cheru and T. M. Shaw (2012), Africa and International Relations in the 21st Century, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. European Commission (2006b), Towards an EU-South-Africa Strategic Partnership, COM(2006) 347 final, Brussels, 28.6.2006.Google Scholar
  18. European Commission and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (2017), Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council, for a renewed impetus of the Africa-EU Partnership, Brussels, 4.5.2017, JOIN(2017) 17 final.Google Scholar
  19. European Parliament, Council and Commission (2017), The New European Consensus on Development, Press Release 271/17, Brussels, 19 May 2017.Google Scholar
  20. Gaspers, J. (2008), “The quest for European foreign policy consistency and the Treaty of Lisbon”, Humanitas Journal of European Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19–53.Google Scholar
  21. Gill, B. and M. Murphy (2008), “China-Europe Relations: Implications and Policy Reponses for the United States”, A Report of the CSIS Freeman Chair in China Studies, Washington D.C: The Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  22. Gill, B. and A. Small (2012), “Untapped Trilateralism: Common Economic and Security Interests of the European Union, the United States and China”, ECRAN Paper, London: Europe China Research and Advice Network (ECRAN).Google Scholar
  23. Gill, B., C.-h. Huang and J. S. Morrisson (2007), “China’s Expanding Role in Africa: Implications for the United States”, A Report of the CSIS Delegation to China and China-Africa-U.S. Relations, Washington D.C: The Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  24. Gross, E. (2009), The Europeanization of National Foreign Policy: Continuity and Change in European Crisis Management, London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gross, E. and J. Jian (2012), “Conceptual Gaps on Global Governance between China and the EU”, in Z. Pan (ed.), Conceptual Gaps in China-EU Relations: Global Governance, Human Rights and Strategic Partnerships, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 202–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hackenesch, C. (2009), “China and the EU’s engagement in Africa: setting the stage for cooperation, competition or conflict?”, die Discussion Paper 16/2009, Bonn: Deutsches Institute für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (die).Google Scholar
  27. Harneit-Sievers, A., S. Marks and S. Naidu (2010), Chinese and African Perspectives on China in Africa, Cape Town, Dakar, Nairobi, Oxford: Pamazuka Press, Fahamu, Heinrich Böll Foundation.Google Scholar
  28. He, W. (2007), “The Balancing Act of China’s Africa Policy”, China Security, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 23–40.Google Scholar
  29. High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (2016), Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe, A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, Brussels, June 2016.Google Scholar
  30. Hofmann, K., J. Kretz, M. Roll and S. Sperling (2007), “Contrasting Perceptions: Chinese, African, and European Perspectives on the China-Africa Summit”, Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft (IPG) 2/2007, Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES).Google Scholar
  31. Huliaras, A. and K. Magliveras (2008), “In Search of a Policy: EU and US Reactions to the Growing Chinese Presence in Africa”, European Foreign Affairs Review, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 399–420.Google Scholar
  32. Junbo, J. and C. Zhimin (2008), “‘Africa Issue’ and China-US-EU Trilateral Relations After the Cold War”, Sixth Shanghai Workshop on Global Governance, 14–15 March 2008, Shanghai: Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (SIIS) and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), available at:
  33. Kolbe, J. and K. Ritterspach (2011), “Emerging Donors in Africa: What Strategy for the U.S. Engagement?” Trade Negotiations Insights, vol. 10, no. 3, Maastricht: European Centre for Development Management (ecdpm), pp. 5–6.Google Scholar
  34. Le Corre (2017), “Europe’s Mixed Views on China’s One Belt, One Road Initiative”, Blog post, 23 May 2017, Washington D.C: Brookings Institute, available at:
  35. Lehne, S. (2012), “The Big Three in EU Foreign Policy”, The Carnegie Papers, Washington D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  36. Li, A. (2008), “China’s New Policy Toward Africa”, in R. I. Rotberg (ed.), China into Africa: Trade, Aid and Influence, Baltimore: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 21–49.Google Scholar
  37. Li, A. (2011), “Africa: From “How Could” to “How Should” - the Possibility of Trilateral Cooperation”, Pamazuka News, Issue 539, 13 July 2011,
  38. Lum, T. (2014), U.S. Assistance Programs in China, CRS Report 7–5700, 2 December 2014, Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service (CRS).Google Scholar
  39. Lundin, L. E. (2012), “From a European Security Strategy to a European Global Strategy: Ten Content-Related Issues”, UI Occasional Paper No. 13, Stockholm: The Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).Google Scholar
  40. Manji, F. and S. Marks (2007), African Perspectives on China in Africa, Cape Town, Nairobi and Oxford: Fahamu and Pambazuka.Google Scholar
  41. Mendez-Parra, M., P. Papadavid and D. W. te Velde (2016), “Brexit and Development: How will Developing Countries be Affected?”, Briefing, July 2016, London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI), available at:
  42. Missiroli, A. (2015), Towards an EU Global Strategy: Background, Process, References, Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies (EUISS).Google Scholar
  43. OECD (2016a), African Economic Outlook 2016, African Development Bank Group, Development Centre, UNDP, Economic Commission for Africa, EU/ACP, Paris: OECD Publication Service.Google Scholar
  44. Pham, J. P. (2006), “China’s African Strategy and Its Implications for U.S. Interests”, American Foreign Policy Interests, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pollet, I., H. Huyse, P. Li, S. Shomba and X. Zhang (2011), Neither Comfort, nor Conflict: The Co-habitation of Chinese and Belgian Aid in the D.R. Congo, Leuven: Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA).Google Scholar
  46. Rolland, N. (2017a), “China’s “Belt and Road Initiative”: Underwhelming or Gamer-Changer?”, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2017, pp. 127–142Google Scholar
  47. Rolland, N. (2017b), China’s Eurasia Century? Political and Strategic Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative, Seattle and Washington D.C.: The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).Google Scholar
  48. Ross, R., O. Tunsjo and Z. Tuosheng (2010), US-China-EU Relations: Managing the New World Order, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Shinn, D. H. (2009), “China’s Engagement in Africa”, in J. G. Cooke and J. S. Morrison (eds.), U.S. Africa Policy Beyond the Bush Years: Critical Challenges for the Obama Administration, Washington, D.C.:The Centre for Strategic and International Studies, pp. 142–161.Google Scholar
  50. Shinn, D. H. (2016), “Extended Ground for U.S.-China Competition? Comparing China’s and the U.S.’ Engagement with Africa”, China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies, January 2016, vol. 02, no. 01, pp. 35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Snow, P. (1988), The Star Raft: China’s Encounter With Africa, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
  52. Staats, J. (2017), “Ebola to Piracy: Sustaining U.S. China Work in Africa”, Blog Post, 28 April 2017, Washington D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP), available at:
  53. Staast, J. and A.K. Stahl (2017), “China’s Approach to Africa Takes on a Harder Edge”, Blog Post, 31 March 2017, Washington D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP), available at:
  54. Stahl, A. K. (2011b), “Contrasting Rhetoric and Converging Security Interests of the European Union and China in Africa”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp.147–173.Google Scholar
  55. Stahl, A. K. (2015a), “China’s New Silk Road Diplomacy: Implications for China’s Relations with Europe and Africa”, EU-China Observer 1.15, pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  56. Stahl, A. K. (2015b), “A Novel Conceptual Framework for the Study of EU Foreign Policy in a Multipolar World: The Case of EU-China-Africa Relations”, NFG Working Paper No. 14/2015, NFG Research Group Asian Perceptions of the EU, Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  57. Stahl, A. K. (2016a), “China’s Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa”, IAI Working Paper 16/22, Rome: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI).Google Scholar
  58. Stanzel, A. (2017), “China’s Belt and Road – New Name, Same Doubts?”, Commentary, 19 May 2017, European Council on Foreign Relations (ecfr), available at:
  59. Stumbaum, M. B. U. and X. Wei (2012), “Conceptual Differences of Strategic Partnership in EU-China Relations”, in Z. Pan (ed.), Conceptual Gaps in EU-China Relations, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 156–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sun, Y. (2014), Africa in China’s Foreign Policy, April 2014, Washington D.C: Brookings Institute, John L. Thornton China Center.Google Scholar
  61. Sun, Y. (2016), US-China Cooperation on Africa Security, Africa in Focus, 1 November 2016, Washington D.C: Brookings Institute, available at:
  62. Taneja, P. (2010), “China-Europe Relations: The Limits of Strategic Partnership”, International Politics, vol. 47, no. 3/4, pp. 371–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thompson, D. (2007), “China’s Emerging Interests in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa and the United States”, in M. Kitissou (ed.), Africa in China’s Global Strategy, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd, pp. 45–74.Google Scholar
  64. United Nations (2015), Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, UN General Assembly, Seventieth session, New York, 25 September 2015.Google Scholar
  65. Wissenbach, U. (2011), “The EU, China and Africa: Working for Functional Cooperation”, in J. Men and B. Barton (eds.), China and the European Union in Africa, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 245–268.Google Scholar
  66. Zhao, S. (2015), “A New Model of Big Power Relations? China–US Strategic Rivalry and Balance of Power in the Asia–Pacific”, Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 24, no. 53, pp. 377–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zondi, S. (2013), “South Africa-EU Strategic Partnership in the Context of a Changing North-South Power Dynamics”, GREAT Insights, vol. 2, no. 6, Maastricht: European Centre for Development Management (ecdpm), pp. 18–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Katharina Stahl
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EuropeBrugesBelgium

Personalised recommendations