The Campaigners

  • Gemma Birkett
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology book series (PSIPP)


This book has highlighted that the process of policy reform is often influenced by a ‘trigger event’ (Dearing and Rogers, 1996: 78), focusing both public and political attention on a particular issue for a short period of time. In terms of women’s penal policy, the series of deaths in custody between 2003 and 2004 were to provide campaigners with this watershed moment and the Ministry of Justice with its ‘policy window’. While media attention surrounding the suicides could be considered extremely small in the overall context of pressing social problems, it enabled the issue to pervade public consciousness to a greater level than had previously been the case. It is clear that there existed a vibrant environment for policy development during this period with political decision-makers collaborating with the wider penal reform network.


  1. Altheide, D., and Coyle, M. (2006) ‘Smart on Crime: The New Language for Prisoner Release’. Crime, Media, Culture 2:3 286–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berrington, E., and Honkatukia, P. (2002) ‘An Evil Monster and a Poor Thing: Female Violence in the Media’. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 3 50–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry, J. M. (1999) ‘The Rise of Citizen Groups’. In T. Skocpol and M. Fiorina (Eds.) Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, M., Philo, G., Tiripelli, G., Docherty, S., and Macpherson, C. (2012) ‘Media Coverage and Public Understanding of Sentencing Policy in Relation to Crimes Against Children’. Criminology and Criminal Justice 12:5 567–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Best, J. (2013) Social Problems. (Second Edition). New York: W.W Norton and Company.Google Scholar
  6. Carlen, P. (Ed.) (2002) Women and Punishment: The Struggle for Justice. Willan: Cullompton, Devon.Google Scholar
  7. Charron, J. (1989) ‘Relations Between Journalists and Public Relations Practitioners: Cooperation, Conflict and Negotiation’. Canadian Journal of Communications 14:2 41–54.Google Scholar
  8. Chibnall, S. (1977) Law-and-Order-News. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  9. Dearing, W. J., and Rogers, M. E. (1996) Agenda-Setting. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Faith, K. (2011) Unruly Women: The Politics of Confinement and Resistance. New York: Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
  11. Franklin, B., and Lavery, G. (1989) ‘Legislation by Tabloid’. Community Care 24 March: 26–28.Google Scholar
  12. Gandy, O. (1982) Beyond Agenda Setting: Information Subsidies and Public Policy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Co.Google Scholar
  13. Grabe, M., Trager, K., Lear, M., and Rauch, J. (2006) ‘Gender in Crime News: A Case Study Test of the Chivalry Hypothesis’. Mass Communication and Society 9:2 137–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, W. (1989) Pressure Groups, Politics and Democracy in Britain. Hemel Hempstead: Philip Allen.Google Scholar
  16. Green, D. (2009) ‘Feeding Wolves: Punitiveness and Culture’. European Journal of Criminology 6:6 517–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hilton, M., McKay, J., Crowson, N., and Mouhout, J. (2013) The Politics of Expertise: How NGOs Shaped Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hobbs, S., and Hamerton, C. (2014) The Making of Criminal Justice Policy. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Jewkes, Y. (2004) Media and Crime London: Sage to the revised 2015 edition of the book ‘Media & Crime’ (Jewkes, Y. (2015) Media and Crime London: Sage).Google Scholar
  20. Johnson-Cartee, K. S. (2005) News Narratives and News Framing: Constructing Political Reality. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Johnstone, G. (2000) ‘Penal Policy Making: Elitist, Populist or Participatory’. Punishment and Society 2:2 161–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Loader, I. (2006) ‘Fall of the “Platonic Guardians”: Liberalism, Criminology and Political Responses to Crime in England and Wales’. British Journal of Criminology 46: 561–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loader, I. (2010) ‘For Penal Moderation: Notes Towards a Public Philosophy of Punishment’. Theoretical Criminology 14:3 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marsh, I., and Melville, G. (2009, 2014) Crime, Justice and the Media. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Newburn, T. (2007) ‘Tough on Crime’: Penal Policy in England and Wales’. Crime and Justice 36:1 425.Google Scholar
  26. Nimmo, D., and Combs, J. (1983) Mediated Political Realities. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  27. Pratt, J. (2007) Penal Populism. Routledge: Abingdon.Google Scholar
  28. Price, V., and Tewksbury, D. (1997) ‘News Values and Public Opinion: A theoretical Account of Media Priming and Framing’. In G. A. Barnett and F. J. Boster (Eds.) Progress in Communication Sciences: Advances in Persuasion. Vol 13. Greenwich, Conn: Ablex.Google Scholar
  29. Roberts, J. V. (2008) ‘Prisons and the Public’ Public Opinion and the Media Seminar: Commission on English Prisons Today Available at:
  30. Rutherford, A. (1993) Criminal Justice and the Pursuit of Decency. Winchester: Waterside Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ryan, M. (1999) ‘Penal Policy Making Towards the Millennium: Elites and Populists; New Labour and the New Criminology’. International Journal of the Sociology of Law 27 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ryan, M. (2003) Penal Populism and Political Culture. Winchester: Waterside Press.Google Scholar
  33. Schlesinger, P., Tumber, H., and Murdock, G. (1991) ‘The Media Politics of Crime and Criminal Justice’. The British Journal of Sociology 42:3 397–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Terkildsen, N., Schnell, F. I., and Ling, C. (1998) ‘Interest Groups, the Media, and Policy Debate Formation: An Analysis of Message Structure, Rhetoric, and Source Cues’. Political Communication 15:1 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thrall, A. T. (2006) ‘The Myth of the Outside Strategy: Mass Media News Coverage of Interest Groups’. Political Communication 23:4 407–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A., and Olien, C. N. (1980) Community Conflict and the Press. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Wallack, L., Woodruff, K., Dorfman, L., and Diaz, I. (1999) News for a Change: An Advocates Guide to Working with the Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gemma Birkett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyCity, University of LondonLondonUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations