The Modes of Government Response to Internet Political Participation in Cities

Part of the Governing China in the 21st Century book series (GC21)


This chapter seeks to construct a simple theory on the government response to internet political participation. We focus on the impact mechanisms of internet political participation on government processes and modes of government response to that internet political participation.


  1. Ansell, C. (2000). The Networked Policy: Regional Development in the Western Europe. Governace: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 3, 303–333.Google Scholar
  2. Arrow, K. J. (1963, orig. pub. 1951). Social Choice and Individual Values. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  3. Boyd, D. (2008). Can Social Network Sites Enable Political Action? International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 4(2), 241–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Browning, G. (2000). Electronic Democracy: Using the Internet to Transform American Politics (2nd ed.). Information Today: Independent Pub Group.Google Scholar
  5. Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Castells, M. (2004). The Network Society: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Northampton: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castells, M. (2008, March). The Public Sphere: Global Civil Society, Communication Networks, and Global Governance. The Annals of the American Academy, 616, 78–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC). (2011). 27th China Internet Development Statistics Report. Last Modified January 16.
  9. China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC). (2013). 31th China Internet Development Statistics Report. Last Modified January 16.
  10. Christmann, A., et al. (2015). New Regionalism—Not Too Complex for the Media Watchdog: Media Reporting and Citizens’ Perception of Democratic Legitimacy in Four European Metropolitan Areas. Urban Affairs Review, 51(5), 676–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cleveland, H. (1985). The Twilight of Hierarchy: Speculations on the Global Information Society. Public Administration Review, 45(1), 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cobb, R., & Ross, M. H. (1976). Agenda Building as a Comparative Politics Process. American Political Science Review, 70(1), 126–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coser, L. A. (1956). The Functions of Social Conflict, International Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction. London: Routledge & K. Paul.Google Scholar
  14. Dahl, R. A. (1956). A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Distelhorst, G., & Hou, Y. (2014). Ingroup Bias in Official Behavior: A National Field Experiment in China. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 9(2), 203–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Easton, D. (1953). The Political system: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science (1st ed.). New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  17. Easton, D. (1971). The Political system: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science (2nd ed.). New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  18. Emerson, R. M. (1962, February). Power-Dependence Relations. American Sociological Review, 27(1), 31–41.Google Scholar
  19. Esarey, A., & Xiao, Q. (2008). Political Expression in the Chinese Blogosphere: Below the Radar. Asian Survey, 48(5), 752–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferber, P., Foltz, F., & Pugliese, R. (2005). The Internet and Public Participation: State Legislature Web Sites and the Many Definitions of Interactivity. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 25(1), 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fu, F. (2010). Competing Game Between System’s Response and Citizen’s Political Participation Through Internet. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Social Sciences), 4, 88–94.Google Scholar
  22. Gladwell, M. (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Abacus.Google Scholar
  23. Gu, L. (2010). Thinking of Internet Participation and Governance Innovation. Chinese Public Administration, 7, 11–14.Google Scholar
  24. Guo, X. (2010, February 7). The Education Sector of Binhai County, Jiangsu Province Blocking BBS Caused Controversy.
  25. Hands, J. (2011). @ Is for Activism: Dissent, Resistance and Rebellion in a Digital Culture. New York: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hindman, M. S. (2008). The Myth of Digital Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hu Yaobang Historical Information Network, the Economic Observer. (2011). The Meaning of the National Samples and Significance of the Times of “Wukan Turnaround”. Last Modified December 22.
  28. Huang, Y., & Cheng, C. (2001). The Impact of Internet Technology on China’s Political Participation in 21st Century. Theory and Rerorm, 1, 124–126.Google Scholar
  29. Jordan, T. (1999). Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2014). Reverse Engineering Chinese Censorship Through Randomized Experimentation and Participant Observation. Science, 345(6199), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kingdon, J. W. (1984). Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  32. Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  33. Lando, T. J. (1998). Participation Models: How to Promote Political Efficacy (Ph.D Dissertation). University of South California.Google Scholar
  34. Leibold, J. (2011). Blogging Alone: China, the Internet, and the Democratic Illusion? The Journal of Asian Studies, 70(4), 1023–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lent, A., & Jordan, T. (1999). Storming the Millennium: The New Politics of Change. London: Lawrence & Wishart.Google Scholar
  36. Li Y. (2011). Maintenance of Stability and Democracy. Last Modified December 24.
  37. Mackinnon, R. (2008). Flatter World and Thicker Walls? Public Choice, 134(1–2), 31–46.Google Scholar
  38. Madianou, M. (2011). Migration and New Media: Transnational Families and Polymedia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Malesky, E., & Schuler, P. (2012). Nodding or Needling: Analyzing Delegate Responsiveness in an Authoritarian Parliament. American Political Science Review, 104, 482–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. May, P. (1991). Reconsidering Policy Design, Politics and Public. Journal of Public Policy, 2, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1983). Effects of Public Opinion on Policy. American Political Science Review, 77(1), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. People Web Opinion Observed. (2010). Microblogging News: The Surge of Public Opinion in Wenzhou Train Collision. Last Modified December 31.
  43. People Web Opinion Observed. (2011). Opinion Observed of “Anti-Trafficking Through Microblogging Event. Last Modified Feburary 23.
  44. Perri 6. (2002). Towards Holistic Governance: The New Reform Agenda. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sen, A. K. (1970). Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden-Day.Google Scholar
  46. Shen, Z. (2011, December 28). Vice Guangdong Provincial Committee Zhu Mingguo: Do Not Drag Black the Demands of People. Singapore: Lianhe Zaobao.Google Scholar
  47. Shen, F., Wang, N., et al. (2009). Online Network Size, Efficacy, and Opinion Expression. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 21(4), 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shirky, C. (2011, January/February). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, 28–41.Google Scholar
  49. Silverstone, R. (2007). Media and Morality: On the Rise of the Mediapolis. Cambridge/Malden: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  50. Slouka, M. (1995). War of the Worlds: Cyberspace and the High-Tech Assault on Reality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  51. Starling, G. (2002). Managing the Public Sector (6th ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers.Google Scholar
  52. Sun, L. (2010). The Rise of Awareness of Civil Rights: A Major Internet-Based Observations. The Journal of Central Institute of Socialism, 3, 99–103.Google Scholar
  53. Sunstein, C. (2006). Infotopia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Sunstein, C. (2007). 2.0. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sunstein, C. (2009). Going to Extremes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Tai, Z. (2006). The Internet in China: Cyberspace and Civil Society. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Thomas, J. C. (1995). Public Participation in Public Decisions: New Skills and Strategies for Public Managers, Jossey-Bass Public Administration Series (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Toffler, A. A. (1983). Previews & Premises: An Interview with the Author of Future Shock and the Third Wave (1st ed.). New York: W. Morrow.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, S. (2006). Public Policy Agenda-Setting Patterns in China. Social Sciences in China, 5, 86–99.Google Scholar
  60. Weber, Max. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. (1st American ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wolman, H., & Page, E. (2002). Policy Transfer Among Local Governments: An Information-Theory Approach. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 15(4), 477–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Xiao, Q. (2004). The ‘Blog’ Revolution Sweeps Across China. New Scientist. Last Modified November 24. Accessed 31 Jan 2013.
  63. Yang, G. (2009). The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Yu, H. (2007). Blogging Everyday Life in Chinese Internet Culture. Asian Studies Review, 31(4), 423–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang, S. (2010). Public Opinion of Internet and Public Policymaking: Dialogue of the Rights and Power. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Zhao, D. (2011). Microblogging Has Changed China. Times. Last Modified December 6.
  67. Zheng, Q. (2007a). From an Internally Initiated Model to an Internally and Externally Cooperative Model. China Public Administration Review, 7, 78–92.Google Scholar
  68. Zheng, Y. (2007b). Technological Empowerment: The Internet, State and Society in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Zhou, X. (2009). The Political Blogosphere in China: A Content Analysis of the Blogs Regarding the Dismissal of Shanghai Leader Chen Liangyu. New Media & Society, 11(6), 1003–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhu, Y., & Robinson B. (2010). Critical Masses, Commerce, and Shifting State-Society Relations in China. The China Beat. Last Modified February 17. Accessed 3 Jan 2013.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations