Advertisement

The Changing Landscape of Elderly Care and the Proliferation of Struggles

  • Hanne Marlene Dahl
Chapter

Abstract

When studying and theorizing care, it is seldom seen in a broader context of the changes occurring in society and in the regulation of care. In this chapter I outline seven social and political processes that frame and condition the way care can be performed today: commodifying, professionalizing, late modernizing, de-gendering, globalizing, bureaucratizing and neo-liberalizing. These processes shape the landscape of elderly care but they are not inevitable. The seven processes condition and frame care and enable new, intensified struggles about care to arise as tensions between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ arise, as well as resistance to various forms of processes and discourses are generated.

Keywords

Changing conditions of care Uncertainty and tensions 

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2004). Affective economies. Social Text, 22(2), 117–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrenkiel, A., et al. (2013). Unnoticed professional competence in day care work. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 3(2), 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, K. (2012). Paradoxes of gender in elderly care: The case of men as care workers in Sweden. NORA, 20(3), 166–181.Google Scholar
  4. Avila, E., & Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (1997). I’m here, but I’m there: The meanings of Latina transnational motherhood. Gender & Society, 11(5), 548–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Björnsdottir, K. (2013). The place of standardization in home care practice: An ethnographic field study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(9–10), 1411–1420.Google Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (2010). Sociology is a martial art: Political writings by Pierre Bourdieu. G. Shapiro (Ed.). New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, W. (2003). Neo-liberalism and the end of liberal democracy. Theory and Event, 7(1). https://muse.jhu.edu/article/48659. Accessed 27 July 2016.
  8. Burau, V., & Dahl, H. M. (2013). Trajectories of change in Danish long term care policies—Reproduction by adaptation through top-down and bottom-up reforms. In C. Ranci & E. Pavolini (Eds.), Reforms in long term care policies—Investigation institutional change and social impacts (pp. 79–96). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Christensen, T. (2012). Post-NPM and changing public governance. Meiji Journal of Political Science and Economics, 1(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. Christensen, T., & Lægreid, P. (2007). Theoretical approach and research questions. In T. Christensen & P. Lægreid (Eds.), Transcending new public management: The transformation of public sector reforms (pp. 1–16). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, J., & Newman, J. (1997). The managerial state. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  12. Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  13. Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities and globalization. In M. C. Zinn, P. Hondagneu-Sotelo, & M. A. Messner (Eds.), Gender through the prism of difference (pp. 36–48). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R. W. (2011). Confronting equality: Gender, knowledge and global change. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. (2005). Hegemonic masculinities—Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper, D. (2007). ‘Well, you go there to get off’: Visiting feminist care ethics through a women’s bath house. Feminist Theory, 8(3), 243–262.Google Scholar
  17. Dahl, H. M. (2000). Fra kitler til eget tøj – Diskurser om professionalisme, omsorg og køn. Århus: Politica.Google Scholar
  18. Dahl, H. M. (2005). A changing ideal of care in Denmark: A different form of retrenchment? In H. M. Dahl & T. R. Eriksen (Eds.), Dilemmas of care in the Nordic welfare state: Continuity and change (pp. 47–61). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  19. Dahl, H. M. (2009). New public management, care and struggles about recognition. Critical Social Policy, 29(4), 634–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dahl, H. M. (2012a). Neo-liberalism meets the Nordic welfare state—Gaps and silences. NORA, 20(4), 283–288.Google Scholar
  21. Dahl, H. M. (2012b). Who can be against quality? A new story about home-based care: NPM and governmentality. In C. Ceci, K. Björnsdottir, & M. E. Purkis (Eds.), Perspectives on care at home for older people (pp. 139–157). Sted: Forlag.Google Scholar
  22. Dahl, H. M. (2015). Regulering og velfærdsprofessionelle identitet(er). In B. Greve (Ed.), Grundbog i socialvidenskab—5 perspektiver (pp. 109–125). Frederiksberg: Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne.Google Scholar
  23. Dahl, H. M., & Rasmussen, B. (2012). Paradoxes in elderly care: The Nordic model. In A. Kamp & H. Hvid (Eds.), Elderly care in transition—Management, meaning and identity at work (pp. 29–49). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dahl, H. M., Hansen, A. E., Hansen, C. S., & Kristensen, J. E. (2015a). Kamp og status—De lange linjer i et samtidsdiagnostisk og historisk-genealogisk perspektiv med særligt fokus på forholdet mellem pædagogiske institutioner, professioner og staten. Copenhagen: U Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dahl, H. M., Eskelinen, L., & Hansen, E. B. (2015b). Co-existing principles and logics of elder care: Help to self-help and consumer-oriented service. International Journal of Social Welfare, 24(3), 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dahlager, L. (2001). I forebyggelsens magt. Distinktion, 2(3), 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dahlerup, D. (1986). The new women’s movement. Feminism and political power in the USA and Europe. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  28. Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality—Power and rule in modern society. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  29. Dunleavy, P., et al. (2006). New public management is dead—Long live digital-era governance. Journal of Public Administration, Research and Theory, 16(3), 467–494.Google Scholar
  30. Eriksen, T. R. (2008). Fra kropslige erfaringer til forhandlingserfaringer—ændringer i den sygeplejestuderendes omsorgserfaringer fra 1987 til 2002. Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, 17(3), 33–42.Google Scholar
  31. Eveline, J., & Bacchi, C. (2005). What are we mainstreaming when we are mainstreaming? International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7(4), 496–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Finch, J. (1989). Family obligations and social change. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  33. Fine, M. D. (2007). A caring society? Care and the dilemmas of human service in the twenty-first century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect—Studies in governmentality (pp. 87–104). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2013, April 13).Google Scholar
  36. Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Fraser, N. (2003). Social justice in the age of identity politics. In N. Fraser & A. Honneth (Eds.), Redistribution or recognition? A political-philosophical exchange (pp. 7–109). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  38. Fraser, N. (2011, March 9). The wages of care: Reproductive labor as a fictitious commodity. Lecture at University of Cambridge. http://www.crassh.cam.ac.uk/gallery/video/nancy-fraser-the-wages-of-care-reproductive-labour-as-fictitious-commodity. Accessed 27 July 2016.
  39. Fraser, N. (2013). Feminism, capitalism and the cunning of history. In N. Fraser (Ed.), Fortunes of feminism—From state-managed capitalism to neo-liberal crisis (pp. 209–226). New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  40. Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The third logic. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  41. Gavanas, A. (2013). Elderly care puzzles in Stockholm. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(2), 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gay, P. (2013). New spirits of public management … ‘post-bureaucracy’. In P. Gay & G. Morgan (Eds.), New spirits of capitalism? Crises, justifications and dynamics (pp. 274–293). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gheaus, A. (2013). Care drain: Who should provide for the children left behind? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 16(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity—Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Giddens, A. (1992). The transformation of intimacy—Sexuality, love and eroticism in modern societies. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  46. Giddens, A. (1999). Runaway world. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  47. Glendinning, C. (2008). Increasing choice and control for older and disabled people: A critical review of new developments in England. Social Policy and Administration, 42(5), 451–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hänsel, D. (1992). Wer ist der professionelle? Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 38(6), 873–893.Google Scholar
  49. Hansen, T. L., & Hjermov, B. (2000). Integration af mænd og andre minoriteter på social- og sundhedsområdet. Copenhagen: Teknologisk Institut.Google Scholar
  50. Hardt, M. (1999). Affective labor. Boundary 2, 26(2), 89–100.Google Scholar
  51. Hemmings, C. (2011). Why stories matter—The political grammar of feminist theory. London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hernes, H. (1987). Welfare state and woman power: Essays in state feminism. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  53. Hjort, K., & Nielsen, S. B. (2003). Omsorg, maskulinitet og forskning i forandring—en indledning. In K. Hjort & S. B. Nielsen (Eds.), Mænd og omsorg (pp. 11–26). Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels forlag.Google Scholar
  54. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: The commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: The University of California Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hochschild, A. R. (1995). The politics of culture: Tradition, cold modern, post modern and warm modern ideals of care. Social Politics, 2(3), 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hochschild, A. R. (2001). Global care chains and emotional surplus value. In W. Hutton & A. Giddens (Eds.), On the edge – Living with global capitalism (pp. 130–146). London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  57. Holter, Ø. G. (2003). Can men do it? Men and gender equality—The Nordic experience. Copenhagen: TemaNord.Google Scholar
  58. Hood, C. (1991). A public management for all seasons. Public Administration, 69(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hood, C., & Peters, G. (2004). The middle aging of new public management: Into the age of paradox? Journal of Public Administration, Research and Theory, 14(3), 267–282.Google Scholar
  60. Huang, S., Yeoh, B. S. A., & Toyota, M. (2012). Caring for the elderly: The embodied labour of migrant care workers in Singapore. Global Networks, 12(2), 195–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Isaksen, L. W. (2010). Transnational care—The social dimension of international nurse recruitment. In L. W. Isaksen (Ed.), Global care work—Gender and migration in the Nordic countries (pp. 137–157). Lund: Nordic Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. Isaksen, L. W. (2011). Gendering the stranger: Nomadic care workers in Europe—a Polish-Italian example. In H. M. Dahl, M. Keränen, & A. Kovalainen (Eds.), Europeanization, care and gender global complexities (pp. 141–151). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Isaksen, L. W., Devi, S. U., & Hochschild, A. R. (2008). Global care crisis: A problem of capital, care chain, or commons? American Behavioral Scientist, 52(3), 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jensen, K., & Tveit, B. (2005). Youth culture—A source of energy and renewal for the field of nursing in Norway. In H. M. Dahl & T. R. Eriksen (Eds.), Dilemmas of care in the Nordic welfare state—Continuity and Change (pp. 161–175). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  65. Jessop, B. (2008). Karl Marx. In R. Stones (Ed.), Key sociological thinkers (pp. 49–62). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnson, T. (1995). Governmentality and the institutionalization of expertise. In T. Johnson (Ed.), Health professions and the state in Europe (pp. 7–24). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Jones, I. R., & Higgs, P. F. (2010). The natural, the normal and the normative: Contested terrains in aging and old age. Social Science and Medicine, 71(8), 1513–1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kjellberg, P. K. (2012). Fra pleje og omsorg til hverdagsrehabilitering—Erfaringer fra Fredericia kommune. Dansk Sygehus Institut: power points. http://www.uin.no/omuin/fakulteter/phs/konferanser/Documents/Erfaringer%20fra%20Fredericia.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2015.
  69. Koffman, E. (2003, January 21–22). Women migrants in the European Union. Paper presented at the conference: The Economic and Social Aspects of Migration, Brussels.Google Scholar
  70. Larner, W. (2000). Neo-liberalism: Policy, ideology and governmentality. Studies in Political Economy, 63, 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Larner, W., & Craig, D. (2005). After neoliberalism? Community activism and local partnerships in Aotearoa New Zealand. Antipode, 37(3), 401–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Larsen, L. T. (2013). Governmentalisering af velfærdsprofessionerne. Dansk sociologi, 24(3), 37–63.Google Scholar
  73. Larsson, M. S. (1977). The rise of professionalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lewis, J. (2001). The decline of the male breadwinner model. Social Politics, 8(2), 152–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lutz, H. (2011). The new maids—Transnational women and the care economy. London: ZED Books.Google Scholar
  76. Lutz, H., & Palenga-Möllenbeck, E. (2009, April 22–23). The care chain concept under scrutiny—Female Ukrainian/Polish care migrants and their families left behind. Paper presented at the conference Care and Migration, Frankfurt.Google Scholar
  77. Marcussen, M. (2002). OECD og idéspillet—Game over? Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag (Magtudredningen).Google Scholar
  78. Martinsen, K. (1994). Fra Marx til Løgstrup: Om etik og sanselighed i sygeplejen. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  79. Meagher, G., & Szebehely, M. (Eds.). (2013). Marketization in Nordic eldercare: A research report on legislation, oversight, extent and consequences. Stockholm: Department of social work.Google Scholar
  80. Mosegaard, M. (2006). Nærvær giver fædre autoritet. Webmagasinet FORUM. Downloaded at: http://kvinfo.dk/webmagasinet/naervaer-giver-faedre-autoritet. Last accessed 27 July 2016.
  81. Newman, J., & Tonkens, E. (2011). Introduction. In J. Newman & E. Tonkens (Eds.), Participation, responsibility and choice—Summoning the active citizen in Western European welfare states (pp. 9–28). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. O’Rourke, H. M., & Ceci, C. (2013). Re-examining the boundaries of the ‘normal’ in ageing. Nursing Inquiry, 20(1), 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ong, A. (2007). Neoliberalism as a mobile technology. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32(1), 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parreñas, R. (2001). Mothering from a distance: Emotions, gender, and intergenerational relations in Filipino transnational families. Feminist Studies, 27(2), 361–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parsons, T. (1964). Essays in sociological theory. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  86. Petersen, L., & Schmidt, M. (2003). Projekt fælles sprog. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  87. Pickard, S. (2010). The ‘good carer’: Moral practices in late modernity. Sociology, 44(3), 471–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Saraceno, C. (1997). Family, market and community, Social policy studies no. 21. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, J. (1996). Only paradoxes to offer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Sørensen, N. N. (2002). Transnationaliseringen af husmoderlige pligter. Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, 11(2), 9–19.Google Scholar
  91. Squires, J. (2007). The new politics of gender equality. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stone, D. (2000). Caring by the book. In M. H. Meyer (Ed.), Care work, gender, labour and the welfare state (pp. 89–111). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Tonkens, E., & Newman, J. (2011). Active citizen, activist professionals—The citizenship of new professionals. In J. Newman & E. Tonkens (Eds.), Participation, responsibility and choice—Summoning the active citizen in Western European welfare states (pp. 201–215). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Tronto, J. (1993). Moral boundaries. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Tronto, J. (2013). Caring democracy: Markets, equality and justice. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Ungerson, C. (1997). Social politics and commodification of care. Social Politics, 4(3), 362–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walby, S. (2009). Globalization & inequalities: Complexity and contested modernities. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  98. Warming, K. (2012). Mænd i omsorgsfag, Ph.D. thesis. Roskilde: Department of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Weber, M. (1976 [1921]). Wirtschaft und gesellschaft. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr.Google Scholar
  100. Witz, A. (1992). Professions and patriarchy. London: Routledge. www.eccertificate.eu. Last accessed 27 July 2016.
  101. Yeates, N. (2009). Globalizing care economies and migrant workers—Explorations in global care chains. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanne Marlene Dahl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social Sciences and BusinessRoskilde UniversityRoskildeDenmark

Personalised recommendations