Advertisement

Conclusion

Chapter
  • 524 Downloads
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

The concluding chapter summarizes results, offers a critique of the research design used, and discusses the next stage of IMF LIDC reform. Two tiers of actors—primary and secondary—influence LIDC outcomes. A coalition between two primary actors (MD-staff, MD-powerful states, powerful states-staff), or a primary actor and a secondary actor (LIDCs, NGOs, the US Congress, and the World Bank president), appears necessary to produce significant policy change. As predicted by PA models, a lack of consensus among powerful state principals provided openings for management and staff to initiate or resist policy reform. The managing director also is a key player who drives LIDC policy agendas and reform. As seen in the fallout following the Asian crisis and the global financial crisis, systemic crises play a central role in changing ideas around what is deemed legitimate in IMF policy choices and helping drive policy reform.

Keywords

Policy Reform Reform Effort Policy Position Sustainable Development Goal Asian Crisis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Ahmed, M. 2008. The next frontier: Low-income countries gain ground in a globalized world but they face major challenges. Finance and Development 45(3): 9–14.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, K., and W. Masters. 2009. Sub-Saharan and North Africa. In Distortions to agricultural incentives: A global perspective, 1955–2007, ed. K. Anderson, 323–357. Washington, DC: The World Bank and Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  3. Coady, D., R. Gillingham, R. Ossowksi, J. Piotrowski, S. Tareq, and J. Tyson. 2010. Petroleum product subsidies: Costly, inequitable, and rising. IMF staff position note SPN/10/05, 25 February 2010. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/spn/2010/spn1005.pdf. Date Accessed 1 Oct 2012.
  4. Cox, R. 1981. Social forces, states, and world orders: Beyond international relations theory. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 10(3): 126–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hern, C., and B. McDonald. 2010. Avoiding protectionism. Finance and Development 47(1): 20–23.Google Scholar
  6. Hibben, M. 2015. Coalitions of change: Explaining low income country reform in the post Washington consensus. Journal of International Relations and Development 18(2): 202–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. IMF and World Bank. 2002. Market access for developing country exports-selected issues. http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/ma/2002/eng/092602.pdf. Accessed 7 Oct 2013.
  8. IMF. 2010a. Reaching the MDGs. Macroeconomic prospects and challenges in low-income countries. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  9. IMF. 2011b. Regional economic outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, recovery and new risks http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2011/afr/eng/sreo0411.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2012.
  10. IMF. 2015c. World economic outlook analysis: Commodity exporters facing the difficult aftermath of the boom. IMF survey magazine, 28 September, 2015. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2015/RES092815A.htm. Accessed 4 Oct 2015.
  11. IMF. 2015d. Financing for development: IMF’s role in the post-2015 agenda. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2015/POL070815A.htm. Accessed 10 April 2015.
  12. Nash, J., and D. Mitchell. 2005. How freer trade can help feed the poor: An agenda for easing hunger worldwide by reducing trade protectionism. Finance and Development 42(1): 27–37.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Assistant Professor of Political ScienceSaint Joseph’s College of MainePortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations