The International Labor Organization and African States: Internationalizing States and Dispersed Foreign Policy
This chapter examines the puzzling persistence of the ILO programming in postcolonial Africa. The ILO’s approaches to labour issues have often seemed well out of step with those of African governments, and engagement with the ILO would seem to do little to advance the broader strategic goals of many African states. Yet, the ILO’s role in the region has persisted and even expanded. The chapter draws on Robert Cox’s concept of ‘the internationalizing state’, and advances the concept of ‘dispersed foreign policy’, in order to offer an explanation. Interactions with the ILO have often taken place through line ministries and been shaped by domestic political concerns, particularly driven by issues around labour politics and unemployment. The chapter draws on examples from a pair of high-profile engagements, the World Employment Programme in Kenya in the 1970s and the Decent Work Agenda in present-day South Africa, to support this argument.
- Amsden, Alice H. 1971. International Firms and Labour In Kenya: 1945–1970. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- Bangasser, Paul E. 2000. The ILO and the Informal Sector: An Institutional History. ILO Employment Paper, 2000/9.Google Scholar
- Cox, Robert W. 1987. Production, Power and World Order. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- EDD. 2011. The New Growth Path: Framework. Pretoria: Republic of South Africa.Google Scholar
- Godfrey, Martin. 1978. Prospects for a Basic Needs Strategy: The Case of Kenya. Institute for Development Studies Bulletin 9 (4): 41–44.Google Scholar
- ILO. 1972. Employment, Incomes, and Equality: A Strategy for Increasing Productive Employment in Kenya. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
- ILO. 1999. Report of the Director General: Decent Work. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
- ILO. 2010. Republic of South Africa: Decent Work Country Programme, 2010–2014. Pretoria: ILO.Google Scholar
- ILO. 2011. 12th ILO African Regional Meeting: Address by the President of South Africa, Mr Jacob Zuma. http://www.ilo.org/global/meetings-and-events/regional-meetings/africa/arm-12/WCMS_165077/lang–en/index.htm.
- ILO. 2016. Status of DWCP Development by Regions as of 15 February 2016. Available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/countries/index.htm. Accessed 6 July 2016.
- Morse, David. 1968. The World Employment Programme. International Labour Review 97 (6): 517–524.Google Scholar
- Republic of Kenya. 1970. Report of the Select Committee on Unemployment. Nairobi: Government Printer.Google Scholar
- Republic of Kenya. 1973. Sessional Paper no. 10 of 1973 on Employment. Nairobi: Government Printer.Google Scholar
- Sandbrook, Richard. 1983. The Politics of Basic Needs: Urban Aspects of Assaulting Poverty in Africa. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar