Development in Selected Countries



This chapter summarizes the specific circumstances in Austria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Germany, Russia, and the USA with a focus on the environment. For each country, relevant political, economic, and social developments are discussed and related to changes in environmental attitudes and behaviors.


International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Private Behavior Green Party Domestic Waste Disposal Societal Affluence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Further Readings

  1. Andrews, R.N. 2006. Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brulle, R.J. 2000. Agency, Democracy, and Nature. The US Environmental Movement from a Critical Theory Perspective. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. Dalton, R.J. 1994. The Green Rainbow: Environmental Interest Groups in Western Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Fagan, A. 2004. Environment and Democracy in the Czech Republic. The Environmental Movement in the Transition Process. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  5. Gillham, P. 2008. Participation in the Environmental Movement: Analysis of the European Union. International Sociology 23: 67–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hadden, J., and S. Tarrow. 2007. The Global Justice Movement in the United States since Seattle. In The Global Justice Movement, ed. Della Porta, 210–231. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Hadler, M. 2013. Environmental Behaviors in a Transatlantic View. International Journal of Sociology 43 (4): 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hadler, M., and M. Haller. 2011. Global Activism and Nationally Driven Recycling: The Influence of World Society and National Contexts on Public and Private Environmental Behavior. International Sociology 26: 315–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hadler, M., and K. Kraemer. 2016. The Perception of Environmental Threats in a Global and European Perspective. In Green European: Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes in Europe in a Historical and Cross-Cultural Comparative Perspective, ed. A. Telesiene and M. Gross, 13–30. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Hadler, M., and P. Wohlkönig. 2012. Environmental Behaviours in the Czech Republic, Austria, and Germany Between 1993 and 2010. Macro-Level Trends and Individual Level Determinants Compared. Czech Sociological Review 48: 467–492.Google Scholar
  11. Haller, M., and C. Troy. 2003. Umwelteinstellungen und Umweltverhalten im internationalen Vergleich. SWS-Rundschau 43: 81–105.Google Scholar
  12. Harper, Charles. 2012. Environment and Society. Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  13. Harrison, K. 2012. A Tale of Two Taxes: The Fate of Environmental Tax Reform in Canada. Review of Policy Research 29 (3): 383–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henry, L.A. 2002. Two Paths to a Greener Future: Environmentalism and Civil Society Development in Russia. Demokratizatsiya 10 (2): 184–206.Google Scholar
  15. Henry, L.A., and L.M. Sundstrom. 2007. Russia and the Kyoto Protocol: Seeking an Alignment of Interests and Image. Global Environmental Politics 7 (4): 47–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hovi, J., D. Sprinz, and G. Bang. 2010. Why the United States Did Not Become a Party to the Kyoto Protocol: German, Norwegian and US Perspectives. European Journal of International Relations 7. doi: 10.1177/1354066110380964.
  17. Jones, M.E. 1993. Origins of the East German Environmental Movement. German Studies Review 16: 235–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manning, N. 1998. Patterns of Environmental Movements in Eastern Europe. Environmental Politics 7: 100–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Markham, W. 2008. Environmental Organizations in Modern Germany: Hardy Survivors in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. New York: Berghahn Press.Google Scholar
  20. Olive, A. 2015. The Canadian Environment in Political Context. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  21. Pesendorfer, Dieter. 2007. Paradigmenwechsel in der Umweltpolitik. Von den Anfängen der Umwelt- zu einer Nachhaltigkeitspolitik: Modellfall Österreich? Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  22. Peters, G.P., C. Minx, C.L. Weber, and O. Edenhofer. 2010. Growth in Emission Transfers via International Trade from 1990 to 2008. PNAS 108 (21): 8903–8908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rootes, C. 2003. Environmental Movements. In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. D.A. Snow, S.A. Soule, and H. Kriesi, 608–640. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Schofer, E., and M. Fourcade-Gourinchas. 2001. The Structural Contexts of Civic Engagement: Voluntary Association Membership in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review 66: 806–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schreurs, M., and E. Papadakis. 2007a. Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement. Lanham, MD, Toronto, and Plymouth: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2007b. Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  27. Seifert, F. 2002. Gentechnik – Öffentlichkeit – Demokratie. Der österreichische Gentechnik-Konflikt im internationalen Kontext. München: Profil Verlag.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, J. 2007. The Transnational Network for Democratic Globalization. In The Social Movements Reader, ed. J. Goodwin and J.M. Jasper, 236–248. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Stykow, P. 2014. Russland. In Politische Systeme im Vergleich: Formale und informelle Institutionen im politischen Prozess, ed. H.J. Lauth, S.303–S.333. Oldenbourg: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  30. UN. 2015. United Nations Statistical Databases.
  31. UNEP. 2014. United Nations Environmental Programme. Geodata Portal.
  32. ———. 2015. The Emissions Gap Report 2015. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Nairobi.Google Scholar
  33. Van Nijnatten, D.L. 1999. Participation and Environmental Policy in Canada and the United States: Trends over Time. Policy Studies Journal 27 (2): 267–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wapner, P.K. 2007. Transnational Environmental Activism. In The Social Movements Reader, ed. J. Goodwin and J.M. Jasper, 226–235. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. World Bank. 2014 and 2015. World Bank Open Data. Accessed at Various Times.
  36. Yanitsky, O.N. 2012. From Nature Protection to Politics: The Russian Environmental Movement 1960–2010. Environmental Politics 21 (6): 922–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations