Advertisement

Online Safety

Chapter
  • 181 Downloads
Part of the Studies in Childhood and Youth book series (SCY)

Abstract

In August 2007, the Australian federal government released the NetAlert filters, the result of an $84 million dollar investment to produce a downloadable software package—colloquially known as the ‘internet porn filter’—that families across the nation could instal on their devices and home computers to minimize the likelihood that children would encounter inappropriate content online. Three days later, 16-year-old high-school student, Tom Wood, famously cracked the filter, in under 30 minutes and with just ‘several clicks’, leaving the software’s icon in the toolbar to fool his parents that the filter was still operating (AAP 2007). In the media frenzy that followed, Wood characterized the software as ‘completely useless’ (ABC 2007) and ‘a horrible waste of money’ (AAP 2007). Indeed, media coverage roundly declared the filter, much to the glee of its opponents, ‘useless’ (ABC 2007) and a total failure, giving lie to ‘the Howard Government’s pre-election pledge to Australian families to protect their youngsters from exposure to inappropriate internet content’ (Nguyen 2007).

References

  1. Albury, K. and Crawford, K. (2012). ‘Sexting, Consent and Young People’s Ethics: Beyond Megan’s Story’. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 26, 463–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Associated Press (AAP). (2007). ‘Teenager Cracks Government Porn Filter’. The Age. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.theage.com.au/national/teenager-cracks-government-porn-filter-20070825-ge5o5q.html
  3. Australian Broadcasting Company (ABC). (2007). ‘Teen Hacks ‘Useless’ Govt Porn Filter’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-08-27/teen-hacks-useless-govt-porn-filter/651366
  4. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (n.d.). ‘Tagged: Upper Secondary Lesson Plans: Student Resources. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources/tagged/teaching-resources
  5. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2010). ‘Cybersmart Parents: Connecting Parents to Cybersafety Resources’. Accessed 7 July 2019: https://www.acma.gov.au/-/media/Research-and-Analysis/Information/pdf/connectingparentstocybersafetyresources-pdf.pdf?la=en
  6. Australian Government. (n.d.). ‘Be Connected: Every Australian Online’. Accessed 4 July 2019: https://beconnected.esafety.gov.au/index.php?redirect=0
  7. Barbovschi, M., Green, L. and Vandoninck, S. (eds.). (2013). Innovative Approaches for Investigating How Children Understand Risk in New Media: Dealing with Methodological and Ethical Challenges. London: EU Kids Online, London School of Economics and Political Science. Accessed 6 July 2018: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/53060/
  8. Becker, H.S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Black, R. and Walsh, L. (2015). ‘Educating the Risky Citizen: Young People, Vulnerability and Schooling’. In K. te Riele and R. Gorur (eds.) Interrogating Conceptions of ‘Vulnerable Youth’ in Theory, Policy and Practice, 181–94. Rotterdam: Sense.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. boyd, d. (2008). ‘Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life’. In D. Buckingham (ed.), Youth, Identity and Digital Media, 119–42. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. boyd, d. (2011). ‘Social Network Sites as Networked Publics: Affordances, Dynamics, and Implications’. In Z. Papacharissi (ed.), Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites, 39–58. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. boyd, d. (2014a). It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  13. boyd, d. (2014b). ‘Sexual Predators: The Imagined and the Real’. Psychology Today. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/singletons/201405/sexual-predators-the-imagined-and-the-real
  14. Bravehearts. (2016). ‘Bravehearts: Every Image Shared is Another Victim Traumatised’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://bravehearts.org.au/bravehearts-every-image-shared-another-victim-traumatised/.
  15. Byrne, J., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Livingstone, S. and Stoilova, M. (2016). Global Kids Online Research Synthesis, 2015–2016. Florence and London: UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti and London School of Economics and Political Science. Accessed 5 July 2019: www.globalkidsonline.net/synthesis.
  16. Cassell, J. and Cramer, M. (2008). ‘High Tech or High Risk: Moral Panics about Girls Online’. In T. McPherson (ed.). Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected, 53–75. The MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cere, R. (2013). ‘Digital Undergrounds: Alternative Politics and Civil Society’. In Y. Jewkes (ed.). Crime Online, 144–59. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. City of Parramatta. (2019). ‘Invest in Parramatta’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.cityofparramatta.nsw.gov.au/business-development/invest-in-parramatta
  19. Cohen, S. (2002). Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. (3rd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Collin, P., Rahilly, K., Richardson, I., and Third, A. (2011). The Benefits of Social Networking Services. Melbourne: Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre.Google Scholar
  21. Davies, T., Bhullar, S. and Dowty, T. (2011). Rethinking Responses to Children and Young People’s Online Lives. London: London School of Economics, EU Kids Online.Google Scholar
  22. de Haan, J. (2009). ‘Maximising Opportunities and Minimising Risks for Children Online’. In S. Livingstone and L. Haddon (eds.). Kids Online: Opportunities and Risks for Children, 187–98. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Department of Communications and the Arts. (2016). ‘Stay Smart Online: Top Security Tips for 2016’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.staysmartonline.gov.au/alert-service/top-security-tips-2016
  24. Department of Home Affairs. (2019a). ‘Cyber Security’. Accessed 11 June 2019: https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/about-us/our-portfolios/cyber-security
  25. Department of Home Affairs. (2019b). ‘Cyber Security: Our Partners’. Accessed 7 July 2019: https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/about-us/our-portfolios/cyber-security/our-partners
  26. Dobson, A. and Ringrose, J. (2016). ‘Sext Education: Pedagogies of Sex, Gender and Shame in the Schoolyards of Tagged and Exposed’. Sex Education, 16(1), 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. eSafetyResearch (2019). Parenting in the Digital Age Report: Summary Report 2. Sydney: Office of the eSafety Commissioner. Accessed 7 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/-/media/cesc/.../esafetyresearchparentingdigitalage.pdf
  28. Finkelhor, D. (2011). The Internet, Youth Safety and the Problem of ‘Juvenoia’. University of New Hampshire, Crimes against Children Research Center. Accessed 12 June 2019: http://unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/Juvenoia%20paper.pdf
  29. Fisk, N. (2016). Framing Internet Safety: The Governance of Youth Online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1977). Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. D.F. Bouchard (ed., Trans.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  31. France, A., Freiberg, K. and Homel, R. (2010). Beyond Risk Factors: Towards a Holistic Prevention Paradigm for Children and Young People. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1192–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gasser, U., and Cortesi, S. (2016). ‘Children’s Rights and Digital Technologies: Introduction to the Discourse and Some Meta-Observations’. In M. D. Ruck, M. Peterson-Badali and M. Freeman (eds.). Handbook of Children’s Rights: Global and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 417–36. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Grant, J. (2017). ‘Fighting for a Respectful (Online) Society’. Office of the eSafety Commissioner. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/newsroom/blog/fighting-for-a-respectful-online-society
  34. Grant, J. (2018). ‘Online Safety Education: Targeting Behaviours Rather than Technologies’. Office of the eSafety Commissioner. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/newsroom/blog/online-safety-education-targeting-behaviours-rather-than-technologies
  35. Hall, S. (1997). ‘The Work of Representation’. In S Hall (ed.), Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, 13–64. London: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J. and Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L. and Olafsson, K. (2009). Comparing Children’s Online Opportunities and Risks Across Europe: Cross-National Comparisons for EU Kids Online. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
  39. Hebdige, D. (1979/1998) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. [Original work published 1979]. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Herring, S.C. (2008). ‘Questioning the Generational Divide: Technological Exoticism and Adult Constructions of Online Youth Identity.’ In D Buckingham (ed.). Youth, Identity, and Digital Media, 71–92. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  41. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (2014). Measuring the Information Society Report 2014. Geneva: International Telecommunication Union. Accessed 20 June 2019: www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/mis2014/MIS2014_without_Annex_4.pdf
  42. Kelly, P. and Kamp, A. (2014). ‘Where the Wild Things Are’. In P. Kelly and A. Kamp (eds.). A Critical Youth Studies for the 21st Century, 142–49. Amsterdam: Brill.Google Scholar
  43. King’s Blog (n.d.) ‘Do You Know What Your Kids Do Online?’. Accessed 12 June 2019: http://blog.kingscollege.qld.edu.au/do-you-know-what-your-kids-do-online
  44. Kleine, D., Hollow, D. and Poveda, S. (2014). Children, ICT and Development: Capturing the Potential, Meeting the Challenges. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research. Accessed 6 July 2018: www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/unicef_royalholloway_ict4dreport_final.pdf
  45. Lee, M., Crofts, T., Salter, M., Milivojevic, S. and McGovern, A. (2013). ‘“Let’s Get Sexting”: Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain’. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2, 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Livingstone, S. (2013). ‘Online Risk, Harm and Vulnerability: Reflections on the Evidence Base for Child Internet Safety Policy’. ZER: Journal of Communication Studies, 18, 13–28.Google Scholar
  47. Livingstone, S. and Bulger, M. (2013). A Global Agenda for Children’s Rights in the Digital Age: Recommendations for Developing UNICEF’s Research Strategy. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research. Accessed 2 July 2018: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/lse%20olol%20final3.pdf
  48. Livingstone, S., Byrne, J. and Bulger, M. (2015). Researching Children’s Rights Globally in the Digital Age. London: Media@LSE, UNICEF, EU Kids Online. Accessed 12 June 2019: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/62248/.
  49. Livingstone, S. and Haddon, L. (2012). ‘Theoretical Framework for Children’s Internet Use’. In S. Livingstone, L. Haddon and Görzig, A. (eds.). Children, Risk and Safety on the Internet: Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective, 1–14. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Livingstone, S. and Helsper, E. (2007). ‘Gradations in Digital Inclusion: Children, Young People and the Digital Divide’. New Media & Society, 9(4), 671–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Livingstone, S, Lansdown, G. and Third, A. (2017). The Case for a UNCRC General Comment on Children’s Rights and Digital Media: A Report Prepared for the Office of the Children’s Commissioner of England. London: LSE Consulting. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Case-for-general-comment-on-digital-media.pdf
  52. Livingstone, S. and O’Neill, B. (2014). Children’s Rights Online: Challenges, Dilemmas and Emerging Directions. In S. van der Hof, B. van den Berg and B. Schermer (eds.). Minding Minors Wandering the Web: Regulating Online Child Safety, 19–38. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Livingstone, S. and Sefton-Green, J. (2016). The Class: Living and Learning in the Digital Age. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Livingstone, S. and Third, A. (2017). ‘Children and Young People’s Rights in the Digital Age: An Emerging Agenda’. New Media and Society, 19(5), 657–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lupton, D. (1994). ‘Panic Computing: The Viral Metaphor and Computer Technology’. Cultural Studies, 8(3), 556–68.Google Scholar
  56. McCosker, A. (2016). ‘Managing Cyberbullying: The Three Layers of Control in Digital Citizenship’. In A. McCosker, S. Vivienne and A. Johns (eds.). Negotiating Digital Citizenship: Control, Contest and Culture, 21–39. London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield International.Google Scholar
  57. Metcalf, A., Blanchard, M., McCarthy, T., and Burns, J. (2008). ‘Utilising Technology to Promote Social Connectedness and Civic Engagement Amongst Marginalised Young People’. 3CMedia: Journal of Community, Citizen’s and Third Sector Media and Communication, 4, 2–15.Google Scholar
  58. Milosevic, T. (2017). Protecting Children Online?: Cyberbullying Policies of Social Media Companies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  59. Moses, A. (2007). ‘Schoolboy Whiz Helps Draft Labor Cyber Policy’. Sydney Morning Herald Online. Accessed 12 June 2019: http://www.smh.com.au/news/web/schoolboy-whiz-helps-draft-labor-cyber-policy/2007/11/21/1195321833867.html
  60. Nguyen, A. (2007). ‘Internet filtering: Teenager Bypasses “Useless” Govt Porn Filter’. News Weekly. Accessed 12 June 2019: http://newsweekly.com.au/article.php?id=3229
  61. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-a). ‘#Game on’. Accessed 24 September 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources/gameon
  62. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-b). ‘Digital Citizenship’. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources/digital-citizenship
  63. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-c). ‘eSafety Women: Empowering Women to Take Control Online’. Accessed 4 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/women
  64. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-d). ‘Role of the Office’. Accessed 11 June 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/role-of-the-office
  65. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-e). ‘Sexting’. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/esafety-information/esafety-issues/sexting/sexting-information-for-teachers
  66. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-f). ‘Tagged’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources/tagged
  67. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-g). ‘Tagged: Character Reflections’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources/tagged/character-reflections
  68. Office of the eSafety Commissioner (OeC). (n.d.-h). ‘Women Influencing Tech Spaces’. Accessed 4 July 2019: https://www.esafety.gov.au/women-influencing-tech-spaces
  69. O’Sullivan, T., Hartley, J., Saunders, D., Montgomery, M., and Fiske, J. (1994). Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies. (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Palfrey, J. and Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  71. Pascoe, C.J. (2011). ‘Resource and Risk: Youth Sexuality and New Media Use’, Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 8(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prensky, M. (2001). ‘Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants’. On the Horizon, 9, 1–6.Google Scholar
  73. reword. (2016). ‘reword – The tool to help end online bullying’. Accessed 12 June 2019: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHP1EjXdYrI
  74. Robinson, K.H., Bansel, P., Denson, N., Ovenden, G. and Davies, C. (2014). Growing Up Queer: Issues Facing Young Australians Who Are Gender Variant and Sexuality Diverse. Melbourne: Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws%3A24414
  75. Salter, M., Crofts, T. and Lee, M. (2013). ‘Beyond Criminalisation and Responsibilisation: Sexting, Gender and Young People’. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 24, 301–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Spears, B.A. (2012). ‘A Review of Initiatives Using Technology to Promote Cyber-Safety and Digital Citizenship’. In A. Constabile and B.A. Spears (eds.). The Impact of Technology on Relationships in Educational Settings, 188–203. Oxon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Sukarieh, M. and Tannock, S. (2011). ‘The Positivity Imperative: A Critical Look at the ‘New’ Youth Development Movement’. Journal of Youth Studies, 14, 675–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Swist, T., Collin, P., McCormack, J. and Third, A. (2015). Social Media and the Wellbeing of Children and Young People: A Literature Review. Perth: Prepared for the Commissioner for Children and Young People Western Australia. Accessed 6 July 2018: https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/930502/Social_media_and_children_and_young_people.pdf
  79. Terdiman, R. (1985). Discourse/Counter-Discourse: The Theory and Practice of Symbolic Resistance in Nineteenth-Century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Thaler, R. H., and Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  81. The Centre for Western Sydney. (2016). ‘Greater Western Sydney Region: Population and Dwellings’. Accessed 5 July 2019: profile.id.com.au/cws/population?WebID=10
  82. Third, A. (2016). Researching the Benefits and Opportunities for Children Online: Method Guide 6. London: Global Kids Online. Accessed 2 July 2018: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/71259/
  83. Third, A., Bellerose, D., Dawkins, U., Keltie, E. and Pihl, K. (2014a). Children’s Rights in the Digital Age: A Download from Children Around the World. Melbourne: Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws%3A28202
  84. Third, A., Bellerose, D., Diniz De Oliveira, J., Lala, G. and Theakstone, G. (2017). Young and Online: Children’s Perspectives on Life in the Digital Age (The State of the World’s Children 2017 Companion Report). Sydney: Western Sydney University. Accessed 23 May 2019: https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/1334805/Young_and_Online_Report.pdf
  85. Third, A. and Collin, P. (2016). ‘Rethinking (Children’s and Young People’s) Citizenship Through Dialogues on Digital Practice’. In A. McCosker, S. Vivienne and A. Johns (eds.). Negotiating Digital Citizenship: Control, Contest and Culture, 41–59. London: Rowman & Littlefield International.Google Scholar
  86. Third, A., Forrest-Lawrence, P. and Collier, A. (2014b). Addressing the Cyber Safety Challenge: From Risk to Resilience. Melbourne: Telstra Corporation. Accessed 6 July 2019: http://www.telstra.com.au/uberprod/groups/webcontent/@corporate/@aboutus/documents/document/uberstaging_279130.pdf
  87. Third, A. and Richardson, I. (2009). Connecting, Supporting and Empowering Young People Living with Chronic Illness and Disability: The Livewire Online Community. Perth: Centre for Everyday Life, Report prepared for the Starlight Children’s Foundation. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://starlight.org.au/sites/all/tmp/files/200-programs/Livewire-Online-Community-Research-Project.pdf
  88. Third, A., Richardson, I., Collin, P., Rahilly, K., and Bolzan, N. (2011). Intergenerational Attitudes Towards Social Networking and Cybersafety: A Living Lab. Melbourne, Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Young People, Technology and Wellbeing. Accessed 6 July 2019: https://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws:11518
  89. Thomas, M. (2011). Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology and the New Literacies. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. UNESCO Asia-Pacific Regional Bureau of Education. (2014). Fostering Digital Citizenship Through Safe and Responsible Use of ICT: A Review of Current Status in Asia and the Pacific as of December 2014. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Accessed 4 July 2018: www.unescobkk.org/education/ict/resources/publications/elibrary-themes/teaching-and-learning/fostering-digital-citizenship-through-safe-and-responsible-use-of-ict/
  91. Walsh, L. and Black, R. (2011). In Their Own Hands: Can Young People Change Australia? Melbourne: ACER Press.Google Scholar
  92. Walsh, L., Black, R. and Berman, N. (2013). ‘Walking the Talk: Youth Research in Hard Times’. In K. Te Riele and R. Brooks (eds.). Negotiating Ethical Challenges in Youth Research, 43–54. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Western Sydney University. (n.d.). ‘About Greater Western Sydney’. Accessed 18 June 2019: https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/rcegws/rcegws/About/about_greater_western_sydney

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Western Sydney UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.University of Western SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations