Advertisement

Making Knowing Visible: Tracking the Development of the Response Token Yes in Second Turn Position

  • Anna Filipi
Chapter

Abstract

This study is a longitudinal investigation of the development of the token yes in second turn position in Summons/Response and in yes/no Question/Answer adjacency pairs. The study draws on data from the interactions between two children aged 10 months to 24 months with their parents. Noting the strong association of yes with the actions of affirming, agreeing and acknowledging, analysis follows its trajectory from its initial non-verbal design at around 10 months, achieved through gaze, bodily orientation and physical action, to a more distinctive head nod in response to questions from around 15 months and to an increasingly verbal yes formulation as the child approaches her second birthday. Analysis also focuses on how the child construed the action that the parent’s question projected.

References

  1. Bateman, A. J., & Danby, S. J. (2013). Recovering from the earthquake: Early childhood teachers and children collaboratively telling stories about their experiences. Disaster Prevention and Management, 22(5), 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolden, G. (2016). A simple da?: Affirming responses to polar questions in Russian conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 100, 40–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruner, J. S. (1975). The ontogenesis of speech acts. Journal of Child Language, 2(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butler, C. W. (2008). Talk and social interaction in the playground. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  5. Butler, C. W., & Wilkinson, R. (2013). Mobilising recipiency: Child participation and ‘rights to speak’ in multi-party family interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 50(1), 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cahill, P. (2010). Child participation in their primary care consultations. In H. F. Gardner & M. A. Forrester (Eds.), Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis (pp. 128–145). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Church, A. (2009). Preference organisation and peer dispute: How young children resolve conflict. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  8. Danby, S. J. (2009). Childhood and social interaction in everyday life: An epilogue. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(8), 1596–1599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fawcett, C., & Liszkowski, U. (2012). Infants anticipate others’ social preferences. Infant and Child Development, 21(3), 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Filipi, A. (2007). A toddler’s treatment of mm and mh mm in talk with a parent. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 30(3), 33.1–33.17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Filipi, A. (2009). Parent and toddler interaction: The development of interactional competence through pointing, gaze and vocalisations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Filipi, A. (2013). Withholding and pursuit in the development of skills in interaction and language. Interaction Studies, 14(2), 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filipi, A. (2014). Conversation analysis and pragmatic development. In D. Matthews (Ed.), Pragmatic development in first language acquisition (pp. 71–86). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  14. Filipi, A. (2015). The development of recipient design in bilingual child-parent interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 48(1), 100–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Filipi, A. (2017). The organization of early story-telling. In A. Bateman & A. Church (Eds.), Children’s knowledge-in-interaction: Studies in Conversation Analysis (pp. 279–296). Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Forrester, M. A. (2008). The emergence of self-repair: A case study of one child during the early preschool years. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 41(1), 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forrester, M. A. (2010). Ethnomethodology and adult-child conversation: Whose development? In H. F. Gardner & M. A. Forrester (Eds.), Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis (pp. 42–58). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  18. Forrester, M. A. (2015). Early social interaction: A case comparison of developmental pragmatics and psychoanalytic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Foster-Cohen, S. H. (2014). The communicative competence of young children: A modular approach. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Fritzley, V. H., & Lee, K. (2003). Do young children always say yes to yes–no questions? A meta developmental study of the affirmation bias. Child Development, 74(5), 1297–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fritzley, V. H., Lindsay, R. C., & Lee, K. (2013). Young children’s response tendencies toward yes-no questions concerning actions. Child Development, 84(2), 711–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gardner, R. (2001). When listeners talk: Response tokens and recipient stance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Graf, E., & Davies, C. (2014). Development of referring expressions. In D. Matthews (Ed.), Pragmatic development in first language acquisition (pp. 161–182). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  24. Hayano, K. (2013). Question design in conversation. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 395–414). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Heritage, J., & Raymond, G. (2005). The terms of agreement: Indexing epistemic authority and subordination in talk-in-interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(1), 15–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heritage, J., & Raymond, G. (2012). Navigating epistemic landscapes: Acquiescence, agency and resistance in responses to polar questions. In J. P. De Ruiter (Ed.), Questions: Formal, functional and interactional perspectives (pp. 179–192). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hutchby, I. (2010). Feelings-talk and the paradoxes of child counselling. In H. F. Gardner & M. Forrester (Eds.), Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis (pp. 146–162). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  28. Jefferson, G. (1984). Notes on a systematic deployment of the acknowledgement tokens ‘yeah’ and ‘mm hm’. Papers in Linguistics, 17, 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jones, S., & Zimmerman, D. H. (2003). A child’s point and the achievement of intentionality. Gesture, 3(2), 155–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kidwell, M. (2005). Gaze as social control: How very young children differentiate “the look” from a “mere look” by the adult caregivers. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38(4), 417–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kidwell, M. (2011). Epistemics and embodiment in children. In T. Stivers, L. Mondada, & J. Steensig (Eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation (pp. 257–256). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kidwell, M. (2013). Interaction among children. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 511–532). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  33. Kidwell, M., & Zimmerman, D. H. (2007). Joint attention as action. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(3), 592–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kita, S., & Ide, S. (2007). Nodding, aizuchi, and final particles in Japanese conversation: How conversation reflects the ideology of communication and social relationships. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(7), 1242–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liszkowski, U. (2011). Three lines in the emergence of prelinguistic communication and social cognition. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 10(1), 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liszkowski, U., & Tomasello, M. (2011). Individual differences in social, cognitive, and morphological aspects of infant pointing. Cognitive Development, 26, 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rendle-Short, J., Skelt, L., & Bramley, N. (2015). Speaking to twin children: Evidence against the “Impoverishment” thesis. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 48(1), 79–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ross, S. (1992). Accommodative questions in oral proficiency interviews. Language Testing, 9(2), 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salomo, D., & Liszkowski, U. (2013). Sociocultural settings influence the emergence of prelinguistic deictic gestures. Child Development, 84(4), 1296–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schegloff, E. A. (1968). Sequencing in conversational openings. American Anthropologist, 70(6), 1075–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schegloff, E. A. (1972). Sequencing in conversational openings. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics (pp. 346–380). New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  42. Schegloff, E. A. (1984). On some gestures’ relation to talk. In J. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action (pp. 266–298). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis (Vol. 1). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schegloff, E. A., & Sacks, H. (1973). Opening up closings. Semiotica, 8(4), 289–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Siegal, M., & Surian, L. (2009). Conversational understanding in young children. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of language development (pp. 304–323). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Siegal, M., & Surian, L. (2012). Access to language and cognitive development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Stivers, T. (2005). Modified repeats: One method for asserting primary rights from second position. Research on Language as Social Interaction, 38(2), 131–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stivers, T., & Robinson, J. D. (2006). A preference for progressivity in interaction. Language in Society, 35(3), 367–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stivers, T., & Rossano, F. (2010). Mobilizing response. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 43(1), 3–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Svennevig, J. (2008). Trying the easiest solution first in other-initiation of repair. Journal of Pragmatics, 40(2), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tarplee, C. (1993). Working on talk: The collaborative shaping of linguistic skills within child-adult interaction. PhD., University of York.Google Scholar
  52. Tarplee, C. (1996). Working on young children’s utterances: Prosodic aspects of repetition during picture labelling. In E. Coupler-Kuhlen & M. Selting (Eds.), Prosody in conversation (pp. 406–435). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tarplee, C. (2010). Next turn and intersubjectivity in children’s language acquisition. In H. F. Gardner & M. A. Forrester (Eds.), Analysing interactions in childhood: Insights from conversation analysis (pp. 3–22). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Wootton, A. J. (1994). Object transfer, intersubjectivity and third position repair: Early developmental observations of one child. Journal of Child Language, 21(3), 543–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wootton, A. J. (1997). Interaction and the development of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Filipi
    • 1
  1. 1.Monash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations