Towards Multi-cultural, Multi-religious European Societies? Schooling Turkish Students in Britain and Germany

  • Daniel FaasEmail author


Faas sheds light on the educational experiences of Turkish Muslim students in Germany and Britain. Drawing on mainly qualitative data, the chapter argues that when the concept of Europe is allied to multi-culturalism, there is the possibility of including minority ethnic groups, like the Turkish Muslims, and giving them the opportunity of relating to the European project and identity in a positive way. If, however, Europe is framed as a white Christian concept, then Turkish Muslim students will struggle to relate positively to Europe as a political identity. Faas theorises the education of Muslim students in European societies and, in so doing, he contributes to ongoing debates about the challenges of constructing and promoting inclusive, multi-cultural, multi-religious models of Europe and the nation-state.


European Union National Identity Political Identity Citizenship Education Ethnic Majority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Archer, L. (2003). Race, masculinity and schooling: Muslim boys and education. London: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Auernheimer, G. (1990). How black are the German Turks? Ethnicity, marginality and interethnic relations for young people of Turkish origin in the FRG. In L. Chisholm et al. (Eds.), Childhood, youth, and social change: A comparative perspective. Basingstoke: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  3. Dodd, V. (2005). Muslim women advised to abandon hijab to avoid attack. Retrieved 4 August 2005, from the World Wide Web:
  4. Enneli, P., Modood, T., & Bradley, H. (2005). Young Turks and Kurds: A set of ‘invisible’ disadvantaged groups. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Faas, D. (2008). From foreigner pedagogy to intercultural education: An analysis of the German responses to diversity and its impacts on schools and students. European Educational Research Journal, 7(1), 108–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Faas, D. (2009). Reconsidering identity: The ethnic and political dimensions of hybridity among majority and Turkish youth in Germany and England. British Journal of Sociology, 60(2), 299–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Faas, D. (2010). Negotiating political identities: Multiethnic schools and youth in Europe. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  8. Faas, D. (2011). The nation, Europe and migration: A comparison of geography, history and citizenship education curricula in Greece, Germany and England. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(4), 471–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faas, D. (2013). Ethnic diversity and schooling in national education systems: Issues of policy and identity (Introduction thematic section). Education Inquiry, 4(1), 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heater, D. (1996). World citizenship and government: Cosmopolitan ideas in the history of Western political thought. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kagitçibasi, C. (1991). Türkische Migranten aus der Sicht des Herkunftslandes. In P. Bott, H. Merkens, & F. Schmidt (Eds.), Türkische Jugendliche und Aussiedlerkinder in Familie und Schule. Hohengehren: Schneider.Google Scholar
  12. Königseder, A. (2001). Türkische Minderheit in Deutschland. Informationen zur Politischen Bildung 271. München: Franzis’ print & media.Google Scholar
  13. Küçükcan, T. (1999). Politics of ethnicity, identity and religion: Turkish Muslims in Britain. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  14. Kuus, M. (2004). Europe’s eastern expansion and the re-inscription of otherness in East Central Europe. Progress in Human Geography, 28(4), 472–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meer, N., Mouritsen, P., Faas, D., & De Witte, N. (2015). Examining ‘postmulticultural’ and civic turns in the Netherlands, Britain, Germany and Denmark. American Behavioral Scientist, 59(6), 702–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mehmet Ali, A. (2001). Turkish speaking communities and education: No delight. London: Fatal Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Modood, T., & Werbner, P. (Eds.). (1997). The politics of multiculturalism in the New Europe: Racism, identity and community. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  18. Osler, A., & Starkey, H. (2003). Learning for cosmopolitan citizenship: Theoretical debates and young people’s experiences. Educational Review, 55(3), 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Piper, N. (1998). Racism, nationalism and citizenship: Ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  20. Şen, F. (2002). Türkische Minderheit in Deutschland. Informationen zur politischen Bildung, 277, 53–62.Google Scholar
  21. Şen, F., & Goldberg, A. (1994). Türken in Deutschland: Leben zwischen zwei Kulturen. München: Verlag C.H. Beck.Google Scholar
  22. Sonyel, S. R. (1988). The silent minority: Turkish Muslim children in British schools. Cambridge: The Islamic Academy.Google Scholar
  23. Triandafyllidou, A. (Ed.). (2010). Muslims in 21st century Europe: Structural and cultural perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Triandafyllidou, A., & Gropas, R. (2015). What is Europe? London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Walkington, H. (1999). Theory into practice: Global citizenship education. Sheffield: The Geographical Association.Google Scholar
  26. Wilpert, C. (2003). Racism, discrimination, citizenship and the need for anti-discrimination legislation in Germany. In Z. Layton-Henry & C. Wilpert (Eds.), Challenging racism in Britain and Germany. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyTrinity CollegeDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations