Advertisement

Islamophobia in Quebec Secondary Schools: Inquiries into the Experiences of Muslim Male Youth Post-9/11

  • Naved BakaliEmail author
Chapter
  • 523 Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter, Bakali provides a timely examination of the presence of Islamophobia in Quebec secondary schools in the post-9/11 context. Employing a critical ethnographic approach stemming from institutional ethnography, this chapter explores systemic and institutional racism experienced by young Muslim men in their secondary schools and possible causes for this treatment. Through engaging with participants in individual interviews and focus group discussions, Bakali describes how participants regularly encountered bias from classmates and teachers relating their perceived faith. The findings in this chapter suggest that anti-Muslim racism experienced by participants was inextricably linked to the effects of the War on Terror in the North American context. Moreover, these experiences were also impacted by Quebec state practices, policies, and political and media discourses.

Keywords

Focus Group Discussion Muslim Woman Media Discourse Muslim Student Islamic Faith 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abo-Zena, M., Sahli, B., & Tobias-Nahi, C. (2009). Testing the courage of their convictions: Muslim youth respond to stereotyping, hostility, and discrimination. In O. Sensoy & C. Stonebanks (Eds.), Muslim voices in school: Narratives of identity and pluralism (pp. 3–26). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Arendt, H. (1944). Race-thinking before racism. The Review of Politics, 6(1), 36–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baubérot, J. (2012). La Laicité falsifiée. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, D. (2009). Who’s afraid of critical race theory. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn, & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 37–50). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Bilge, S. (2012). Mapping Quebecois sexual nationalism in times of ‘crisis of reasonable accommodations’. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(3), 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilge, S. (2013). Reading the racial subtext of the Quebecois accommodation controversy: An analytics of racialized governmentality. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies, 40(1), 157–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CairCan. (2008, May 23). CairCan: News release. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from CairCan website: http://www.caircan.ca/itn_more.php?id=A2984_0_2_0_M
  8. Campbell, M., & Gregor, F. (2008). Mapping social relations: A primer in doing institutional ethnography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, N., & Starn, R. (1989). Introduction. Representations, 26(2), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gottschalk, P., & Greenberg, G. (2008). Islamophobia: Making muslims the enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  11. Jiwani, Y. (2010). Doubling discourses and the veiled other: Mediations of race and gender in Canadian media. In S. Razack, M. Smith, & S. Thobani (Eds.), States of race: Critical race feminism for the 21st century (pp. 59–86). Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  12. Khan, S. (2009). Integrating identities: Muslim American youth confronting challenges and creating change. In O. Sensoy & C. Stonebanks (Eds.), Muslim voices in school: Narratives of identity and pluralism (pp. 27–40). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Kumar, D. (2012). Islamophobia and the politics of empire. Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  14. Leroux, D. (2010). Québec nationalism and the production of difference: The Bouchard-Taylor commission, Québec Identity Act, and Québec’s immigrant integration Policy. Quebec Studies, 49, 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mahrouse, G. (2010). Reasonable accommodation’ debates in Quebec: The limits of participation and dialogue. Race and Class, 52(1), 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maira, S. (2014). Surveillance effects: South Asian, Arab, and Afghan American youth in the War on Terror. In S. Perera & S. Razack (Eds.), At the limits of justice: Women of colour on terror (pp. 86–106). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  17. Mamdani, M. (2005). Good Muslim bad Muslim: America, the cold war, and the roots of terror. New York: Three Leaves Press.Google Scholar
  18. Marx, S. (2008). Critical race theory. In L. Given (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (Vol. 1, pp. 163–167). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. McAndrew, M., Oueslati, B., & Helly, D. (2007). L’évolution du traitement de l’islam et des cultures musulmanes dans les manuels scolaires québécois de langue française du secondaire. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 39(3), 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miller, M. (2008). Otherness. In L. Given (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (Vol. 2, pp. 587–589). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Mookerjea, S. (2009). Hérouxville’s Afghanistan, or, accumulated violence. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 31(2), 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pignatelli, F. (1998). Critical ethnography/poststructuralist concerns: Foucault and the play of memory. Interchange, 294, 403–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Razack, S. (2008). Casting out: The eviction of Muslims from Western law and politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  24. Reid, A. (2013). Canadians view non-Christian religions with uncertainty, dislike. Vancouver: Angus Reid Global.Google Scholar
  25. Russell, G., & Kelly, N. (2002). Research as interacting dialogic processes: Implications for reflexivity. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 3(3), 18.Google Scholar
  26. Salaita, S. (2006). Anti-Arab racism in the USA: Where it comes from and what it means for politics today. Ann Arbor: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  27. Selby, J. (2011). French secularism as a ‘guarantor’ of women’s rights? Muslim women and gender politics in a Parisan banlieue. Culture and Religion, 12(4), 441–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sheehi, S. (2011). Islamophobia: The ideological campaign against Muslims. Atlanta: Clarity Press.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, D. (2005). Institutional ethnography: A sociology for people. Lanham: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  30. Smith, D. (2006). Institutional ethnography as practice. Lanham: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  31. Taylor, C. (2007). The age of Secularism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Thobani, S. (2007). Exalted subjects: Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  33. Wong, A. (2011). The disquieting revolution: A genealogy of reason and racism in the Québec press. Global Media, 4(1), 145–162.Google Scholar
  34. Zine, J. (2001). Muslim youth in Canadian schools: Education and the politics of religious identity. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 32(4), 399–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zine, J. (2009). Unsettling the nation: Gender, race and Muslim cultural politics in Canada. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 9(1), 146–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontréal, QCCanada

Personalised recommendations