In the conclusion, Albers summarises the main driving forces of European China policies since 1969, discusses the historical significance of Sino-European relations, and points out possible implications for the future. He argues that it was a combination of domestic economic and political factors, historical influences and external constraints of the Cold War that shaped the relations between China on the one hand and Britain, France and West Germany on the other. Though they all had to face the challenge of dealing with declining European influence in the world, the three states eventually contributed much to China’s modernisation by providing direct assistance and by acting as a stabilising factor in the international system. Albers concludes that these policies benefited both China and Europe and can therefore serve as inspiration for the future.


Foreign Policy Chinese Market Chinese Foreign Policy China Policy Preceding Chapter 
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© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Albers
    • 1
  1. 1.Administration of the Free and Hanseatic City of HamburgHamburgGermany

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