Advertisement

The Frankfurt School, Leisure and Consumption

  • Gabby Skeldon
Chapter
  • 986 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter takes a look at the work of the Frankfurt School and how its various members have contributed to our understanding of leisure. Firstly, it explores the history of the Frankfurt School and how it became the aim of scholars to work towards a social theory that could be applied more practically. This chapter examines the way in which Critical Theory could be used to gain a greater understanding of society, articulating how this might be used for emancipating the masses. It further considers the work of Adorno and Horkheimer concerning The Culture Industry and how popular culture influences the individual’s leisure choices. Finally, the chapter concludes by examining the work of the Frankfurt School in a contemporary way, by analysing RuPaul’s Drag Race and the RuPaul Franchise using the theoretical underpinnings suggested by The Culture Industry, to show how the work of the Frankfurt School is still relevant today when studying leisure.

Keywords

Leisure The Culture Industry Adorno Horkheimer Critical Theory 

References

  1. Adorno, T. W. (1947). Philosophy of modern music. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, T. W. (2001 [1991]). The culture industry reconsidered. In J. M. Bernstein (Ed.), The culture industry: Selected essays on mass culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, W. (1997). The rise of the German and the demise of the English spa industry: A critical analysis of business success and failure. Leisure Studies, 16, 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett, J. T., & Johnson, C. W. (2013). We are all royalty: Narrative comparison of a drag queen and king. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(5), 677–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borsay, P. (2006). A history of leisure: The British experience since 1500. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bramham, P. (2006). Hard and disappearing work: Making sense of the leisure project. Leisure Studies, 25(4), 379–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronner, S. E. (2011). Critical theory: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calhoun, C., & Karaganis, J. (2001). Critical theory. In G. Ritzer & B. Smart (Eds.), Handbook of social theory (pp. 179–200). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daems, J. (2014). The make-up of RuPaul’s drag race: Essays on the queen of reality TV shows. Jefferson: McFarland and Company Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Edgar, A. (1999). Key concepts in cultural theory (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Edgar, E. A. (2011). Xtravaganza!: Drag representation and articulation in RuPaul’s drag race. Studies in Popular Culture, 34(1), 133–146.Google Scholar
  12. Held, D. (1980). Introduction to critical theory: Horkheimer to Habermas. London: Hutchinson and Co..Google Scholar
  13. Highmore, B. (2016). Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Horkheimer, M. (2002). Critical theory: Selected essays (M. J. O’Connell, Trans.). New York: The Continuum Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  15. Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. W. (2002 [1944]). The dialect of enlightenment (The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Trans.). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Jarvie, G., & McGuire, J. (1994). Sport and leisure in social thought. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jay, M. (1973). The dialectical imagination: A history of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research 1923–1950. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  18. Lowenthal, L. (1961). Literature, popular culture and society. London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Lyotard, J. F. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Marcuse, H. (1969). An essay on liberation. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mussell, S. (2013). Theodor W. Adorno, the culture industry and leisure. In T. Blackshaw (Ed.), Routledge handbook of leisure studies (pp. 99–109). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Popper, K. R. (1984). The Frankfurt School: An autobiographical note. In J. Marcus & Z. Tar (Eds.), Foundations of the Frankfurt school of social research (pp. 167–170). London: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  23. Ritzer, G. (2004). The “McDonaldization” of society. Journal of American Culture, 6(1), 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roberts, K. (1970). Leisure. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  25. Roberts, K. (2004). Leisure inequalities, class divisions and social exclusion in present-day Britain. Cultural Trends, 13(2), 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rojek, C. (1985). Capitalism and leisure theory. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  27. Rojek, C. (1995). Decentring leisure: Rethinking leisure theory. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Rupp, L. J., & Taylor, V. A. (2003). Drag queens at the 801 Caberet. London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Spracklen, K. (2009). The meaning and purpose of leisure: Habermas and leisure at the end of modernity. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Storey, J. (1997). An introduction to cultural theory and popular culture (2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Sugden, J., & Tomlinson, A. (2002). Power games: A critical sociology of sport. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and custom. London: Bradbury Evans and Co.Google Scholar
  33. Wiggershaus, R. (1995). The Frankfurt school: Its history, theories and political significance. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  34. Williams, R. (1983). Culture and society: 1780–1950. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Witkin, R. W. (2003). Adorno on popular culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabby Skeldon
    • 1
  1. 1.Leeds Beckett UniversityLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations