Advertisement

Grandfathers pp 183-197 | Cite as

Grandfather Involvement in Finland: Impact of Divorce, Remarriage, and Widowhood

  • Mirkka DanielsbackaEmail author
  • Antti O. Tanskanen
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life book series (PSFL)

Abstract

While divorce and remarriage are known to influence family relations, few studies have explored grandfathers’ involvement with their grandchildren following marital disruption. In this chapter we investigate whether the involvement of widowed, divorced, or remarried grandfathers differs from that of grandfathers who have married but never divorced, and whether the effect of marital status is different between grandfathers and grandmothers. Grandparental involvement is measured by childcare and contact frequencies with grandchildren. The investigation is based on the Generational Transmissions in Finland survey, with data including 1441 grandparents aged between 62 and 67. We found that divorce as well as remarriage reduced the contacts and childcare provided by grandfathers. Among both married and divorced grandparents, grandmothers were much more involved than grandfathers.

Keywords

Finland Grandparents involvement Marital disruption 

References

  1. Amato, P. R. (1996). Explaining the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 628–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aquilino, W. S. (1994). Later life parental divorce and widowhood: Impact on young adults’ assessment of parent-child relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 908–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attar-Schwartz, S., Tan J., P., Buchanan, A., Floury, E., & Griggs, J. (2009). Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bracke, P., Christiaens, W., & Wauterickx, N. (2008). The pivotal role of women in informal care. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1348–1378. doi: 10.1177/0192513X08316115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coall, D. A., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Grandparental investment: Past, present and future. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 1–59. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X09991105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Danielsbacka, M., & Tanskanen, A. (2012). Adolescent grandchildren’s perceptions of grandparents’ involvement in UK. An interpretation from life course and evolutionary theory perspective. European Journal of Ageing, 9, 329–341. doi: 10.1007/s10433-012-0240-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A. O., Jokela, M., & Rotkirch, A. (2011). Grandparental child care in Europe: Evidence for preferential investment in more certain kin. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Danielsbacka, M., Tanskanen, A. O., Hämäläinen, H., Pelkonen, I., Haavio-Mannila, E., Rotkirch, A., Karisto, A., & Roos, J. P. (2013). Sukupolvien vuorovaikutus. Auttaminen ja yhteydenpito suurten ikäluokkien ja heidän lastensa elämässä [Intergenerational relations: Helping and interaction in the life of Finnish baby boomers and their adult children]. Väestöntutkimuslaitoksen julkaisusarja D 58/2013. Helsinki: Väestöliitto.Google Scholar
  9. Diekmann, A., & Engelhardt, H. (1999). The social inheritance of divorce: Effects of parent’s family type in postwar Germany. American Sociological Review, 64, 783–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doyle, M., O’Dywer, C., & Timonen, V. (2010). How can you just cut off a whole side of the family and say move on? The reshaping of paternal grandparent-grandchild relationships following divorce or separation in the middle generation. Family Relations, 59, 587–598. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2010.00625.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubas, J. S. (2001). How gender moderates the grandparent–grandchild relationship: a comparison of kin-keeper and kin selector theories. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 478–492. doi: 10.1177/019251301022004005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dykstra, P. A. (1997). The effects of divorce on intergenerational exchanges in families. The Netherlands’ Journal of Social Sciences, 33, 77–93.Google Scholar
  13. Euler, H. A., & Michalski, R. L. (2008). Grandparental and extended kin relationships. In C. A. Salmon & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships: An evolutionary perspective (pp. 230–256). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hank, K., & Buber, I. (2009). Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: Findings from the 2004 survey of health, ageing, and retirement in Europe. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 53–73. doi: 10.1177/0192513X08322627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hurme, H. (2006). Grandparents as resource factors in the family. In L. Pulkkinen, J. Kaprio, & R. Rose (Eds.), Socioemotional development and health from adolescence to adulthood. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Igel, C., & Szydlik, M. (2011). Grandchild care and welfare state arrangements in Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 21, 210–224. doi: 10.1177/0958928711401766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karisto, A. (2005). Suuret ikäluokat kuvastimessa [Baby boomers in the mirror]. In A. Karisto (Ed.), Suuret ikäluokat [The baby boomers] (pp. 17–58). Tampere: Vastapaino.Google Scholar
  18. Karisto, A., & Haapola, I. (2015). Generations in ageing Finland: Finding your place in the demographic structure. In K. Komp & S. Johansson (Eds.), Population ageing from a lifecourse perspective. Critical and international approaches (pp. 45–63). Bristol: Polity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kartovaara, L. (2002). Perhe on paras. Väestötilastollinen tutkimusretki suurten ikäluokkien perheisiin [Family is the best. Demographic expedition to baby boomers families]. Hyvinvointikatsaus, 1(2002), 8–14.Google Scholar
  20. King, V. (2002). Parental divorce and interpersonal trust in adult offspring. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 642–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. King, V. (2003). The legacy of a grandparent’s divorce: Consequences for ties between grandparents and grandchildren. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 170–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knudsen, K. (2012). European grandparents’ solicitude: Why older men can be relatively good grandfathers. Acta Sociologica, 55, 231–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lussier, G., Deater-Deckard, K., Dunn, J., & Davies, L. (2002). Support across two generations: Children’s closeness to grandparents following parental divorce and remarriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mace, R., & Sear, R. (2005). Are humans cooperative breeders? In E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, & W. Schiefenhövel (Eds.), Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  25. OECD. (2014). OECD family database. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. www.oecd.org/social/family/database.Google Scholar
  26. Paajanen, P. (2007). Mikä on minun perheeni? Suomalaisten käsityksiä perheestä vuosilta 2007 ja 1997 [What is my family? Finnish perceptions of family from years 2007 and 1997]. Väestöntutkimuslaitos, Katsauksia E 30/2007. Helsinki: Väestöliitto.Google Scholar
  27. Pezzin, L. E., & Schone, B. S. (1999). Parental marital disruption and intergenerational transfers: An analysis of lone elderly parents and their children. Demography, 36, 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Purhonen S (2007) Sukupolvien ongelma: Tutkielmia sukupolven käsitteestä, sukupolvitietoisuudesta ja suurista ikäluokista [The problem of generations: Studying the concept of generations, generational consciousness, and the baby boomers]. Helsinki: Helsinki University.Google Scholar
  29. Saraceno, C. (2011). Childcare needs and childcare policies: A multidimensional issue. Current Sociology, 59, 78–96. doi: 10.1177/0011392110385971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tanskanen, A. O., Danielsbacka, M., & Rotkirch, A. (2014). Multi-partner fertility is associated with lower grandparental investment from in-laws in Finland. Advances in Life Course Research, 20, 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tomassini, C., Kalogirou, S., Grundy, E., Fokkema, T., Martikainen, P., Broese van Groenou, M., et al. (2004). Contacts between elderly parents and their children in four European countries: Current patterns and future prospects. European Journal of Ageing, 1, 54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uhlenberg, P., & Hammill, B. G. (1998). Frequency of grandparent contact with grandchild sets: Six factors that make a difference. The Gerontologist, 38, 276–285. doi: 10.1093/geront/38.3.276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Waite, L. J., & Gallagher, M. (2000). The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  34. White, L. (1992). The effect of parental divorce and remarriage on parental support for adult children. Journal of Family Issues, 13, 234–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.University of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations