The Martial Jihad in Learned Sufi Texts
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This chapter analyzes excerpts from learned Sufi texts (i.e. treatises, tafsir, and letters) with regard to their discussion of the martial jihad (i.e. the lesser jihad). This chapter concludes that learned Sufi texts consistently employ the verbal noun jihad to refer to the martial jihad (i.e. religiously prescribed warfare) and that they are unanimous in their support for engaging in warfare in order to safeguard the Abode of Islam or expand its domain. Similar to what contemporary scholars writing in Arabic say, premodern learned Sufi texts generally insist on the spiritual jihad (mujahada) as ideal preparation for carrying out the martial jihad (jihad).