Race and Privilege in Integration: Occupations, White Privilege, and Gender



Race and privilege in integration focuses on the ways in which the white privilege is reproduced through migration, and how this privilege, as a form of capital, is converted into other forms of capital that eventually benefit its bearers in terms of their socioeconomic position. The inclusion of non-(typically) Western and non-English-speaking participants in this study reveals to us the extent to which English is associated with images of whiteness and its connotations with the ‘global’ that represent an important aspiration of contemporary Japan. At the same time, this chapter focuses on the difficulties in everyday lives of those who do not fit into such images and emphasizes that the experience of whiteness is not a homogenous one through a discussion of gendered outcomes of migration.


Foreign Language Japanese Woman Cultural Capital English Language Proficiency High Education Sector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ager, Alastair, and Alison Strang. 2008. Understanding Integration: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Refugee Studies 21(2): 166–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, Margaret, and Patricia Hill Collins. 1992. Race Class and Gender. Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Banton, Michael. 2008. The Sociology of Ethnic Relations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(7): 1267–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BBC News. 2006. Faking It as a Priest in Japan. November 2.Google Scholar
  5. Beaverstock, Jonathan V. 2002. Transnational Elites in Global Cities: British Expatriates in Singapore’s Financial District. Geoforum 33(4): 525–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaverstock, Jonathan V 2005. Transnational Elites in the City: British Highly-Skilled Inter-Company Transferees in New York City’s Financial District. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31(2): 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Befu, Harumi. 2001. Hegemony of Homogeneity: An Anthropological Analysis of Nihonjinron. Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bonnett, Alastair. 1996. ‘White Studies’: The Problems and Projects of a New Research Agenda. Theory, Culture and Society 13(2): 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 1998. Who Was White? The Disappearance of Non-European White Identities and the Formation of European Racial Whiteness. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(6): 1029–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ———. 2004a. Idea of the West: Culture, Politics and History. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2004b. Whiteness. In Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies, ed. Ellis Clashmore, 451–454. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 2008. White Studies Revisited. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(1): 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. The Forms of Capital. In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, ed. John G. Richardson, vol. 241, 241–258. Seminal on Social Capital; Closure Oriented; No Level. Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  14. Brubaker, Rogers. 2001. The Return of Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on Immigration and Its Sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies 24(4): 531–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgess, Chris. 2012a. Celebrating ‘Multicultural Japan’: Writings on ‘Minorities’ and the Discourse on ‘Difference’. In Researching Twenty-First Century Japan, eds. Timothy Iles and Peter Matanle, 241–264. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2012b. ‘It’s Better If they Speak Broken Japanese’: Language as a Pathway or an Obstacle to Citizenship in Japan ? In Language and Citizenship in Japan, ed. Nanette Gottlieb, vol. 1, 37–57. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Castles, Stephen, Maja Korac, Ellie Vasta, and Steven Vertovec. 2002. Integration: Mapping the Field.Google Scholar
  18. Castles, Stephen, and Mark J. Miller. 2009. The Age of Migration, 4th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. CERD, UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 2010. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 9 of the Convention: Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Japan.Google Scholar
  20. Coles, Anne, and Katie Walsh. 2010. From ‘Trucial State’ to ‘Postcolonial’ City? The Imaginative Geographies of British Expatriates in Dubai. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(8): 1317–1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Comaroff, John L., and Jean Comaroff. 2009. Ethnicity, Inc. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daimon, Sayuri. 2013. High Schoolers Dream of Ivy League. The Japan Times.Google Scholar
  23. De Vos, George, and Hiroshi Wagatsuma. 1966. Japan’s Invisible Race: Caste in Culture and Personality. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dujarric, Robert. 2010. Immigrants Can Buoy Japan. The Japan Times, May 20.Google Scholar
  25. Farrer, James. 2010. ‘New Shanghailanders’ or ‘New Shanghainese’: Western Expatriates’ Narratives of Emplacement in Shanghai. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(8): 1211–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ———. 2011. Global Nightscapes in Shanghai as Ethnosexual Contact Zones. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(5): 747–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fechter, Anne-Meike. 2007. Transnational Lives: Expatriates in Indonesia. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  28. Fechter, Anne-Meike, and Katie Walsh. 2010. Examining ‘Expatriate’ Continuities: Postcolonial Approaches to Mobile Professionals. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(8): 1197–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Findlay, Allan M. 1996. Skilled Transients: The Invisible Phenomenon. In Cambridge Sruvey of World Migration, ed. Robin Cohen, 512–522. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fukuoka, Yasunori. 1993. Zainichi Kankoku/Chōsenjin : Wakai Sedai No Aidentitī [Koreans in Japan: Identity of Young People]. Tokyo: Chuuou Kouronsha.Google Scholar
  31. Hage, Ghassan. 2000. White Nation. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Hakkarainen, Nina. 2012. Gendai Nihon Ni Okeru Kōgakureki Gaikokujin No Shūrō Jōkyō [Employment of Highly Educated Foreigners in Japan]. Doshisha Review of Sociology 16: 81–89.Google Scholar
  33. Hannerz, Ulf. 1996. Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Harnett, Sam. 2012. Popularity of Western-Style Weddings in Japan Creates Demand for White Officiants. PRI’s The World.Google Scholar
  35. Itagaki, Ryūta. 2015. The Anatomy of Korea-Phobia in Japan. Japanese Studies (July): 1–18.Google Scholar
  36. Kamoto, Itsuko. 2008. Kokusai Kekkonron!? [Theory of International Marriage !?]. Kyoto: Hōritsu Bunkasha.Google Scholar
  37. Kelsky, Karen. 2001. Women on the Verge: Japanese Women, Western Dreams. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim, Bumsoo. 2011. ‘Blatant Discrimination Disappears, But…’: The Politics of Everyday Exclusion in Contemporary Japan. Asian Perspective 35: 287–308.Google Scholar
  39. Komisarof, Adam. 2012. At Home Abroad: The Contemporary Western Experience in Japan. Reitaku University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kymlicka, Will. 2003. Immigration, Citizenship, Multiculturalism: Exploring the Links. The Political Quarterly 74(s1): 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lan, Pei-Chia. 2011. White Privilege, Language Capital and Cultural Ghettoisation: Western High-Skilled Migrants in Taiwan. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(10): 1669–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, Som im, Stephen Murphy Shigematsu, and Harumi Befu. 2006. Japan’s Diversity Dilemmas. New York: iUniverse.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, Som im, and Hiroshi Tanaka. 2007. Gurōbaruka Jidai No Nihonshakai to Kokuseki [Japanese Society and Citizenship in the Age of Globalization]. Tokyo: Akaishi Shoten.Google Scholar
  44. Lehmann, Angela. 2014. Transnational Lives in China: Expatriates in a Globalizing City. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leonard, Pauline. 2010. Work, Identity and Change? Post/Colonial Encounters in Hong Kong. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(8): 1247–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li, Jenn. 2014. Julien Blanc Is a Racist Sexual Predator Teaching Men to Prey on Women like Me—and He Must Be Stopped. The Independent.Google Scholar
  47. Liu-Farrer, Gracia. 2011a. Labour Migration from China to Japan: International Students, Transnational Migrants. In London. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 2011b. Making Careers in the Occupational Niche: Chinese Students in Corporate Japan’s Transnational Business. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(5): 785–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lundström, Catrin. 2014. White Migartions: Gender, Whiteness and Privilege in Transnational Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Majima, Ayu. 2014a. Kindai Nihon No Jinshu Taiken [Skin Color Melancholy in Modern Japan]. Tokyo: Chuokoron-Shinsha.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 2014b. Skin Color Melancholy in Modern Japan: Male Elites’ Racial Experiences Abroad, 1880s–1950s. In Race and Racism in Modern Asia: Western and Eastern Constructions, 391–410.Google Scholar
  52. McDermott, Monica, and Frank Samson. 2005. White Racial and Ethnic Identity in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology 31(1): 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ministry of Justice, Immigration Bureau. 2013a. Heisei 24nen Ni Okeru Ryūgakusei No Nihonkigyō He No Shūshoku Jōkyō Ni Tsuite (On the Employment Situation of Foreign Students in Japanese Companies).Google Scholar
  54. ———. 2013b. Zairyū Gaikokujin Tōkei [Statistics on the Foreigners Registered in Japan]. Tokyo: Japan Immigration Association.Google Scholar
  55. Ochiai, Emiko. 1997. The Japanese Family System in Transition. Tokyo: LTCB International Library Foundation.Google Scholar
  56. Oguma, Eiji. 2002. A Genealogy of “Japanese” Self-Images. Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ōnuma, Yasuaki. 1993. Tan’itsu Minzoku Shakai No Shinwa O Koete: Zainichi Kankoku/chosenjin to Shutsunyūkoku Kanri Seido [Getting over the Myth of the Homogenous Society: Resident Korenas and the Immigration Control System]. Tōkyō: Tōshindō.Google Scholar
  58. Ratcliffe, Peter. 2004. Race, Ethnicity and Difference: Imagining the Inclusive Society. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Russell, John. 1991. Narratives of Denial: Racial Chauvinism and the Black Other in Japan. Japan Quarterly 38(4): 416–428.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2009. The Other Other. In Japans Minorities: Illussion of Homegeneity, ed. Michael Weiner, 2nd edn., 84–115. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Said, Edward W. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  62. Schaede, Ulrike, and William W. Grimes. 2003. Japan’s Managed Globalization. Armonk, NY  and London: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  63. Shimazu, Naoko. 1998. Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shoji, Kaori. 2013. It Ain’t Easy Being a Bilingual Girl. The Japan Times.Google Scholar
  65. Simmel, Georg. 1950. The Stranger. In The Sociology of Georg Simmel, 402–408. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  66. Storlöpare, Petri. 2013. A Life in Japan.Google Scholar
  67. Sugimoto, Yoshio. 2010. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge  and Tokyo: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Takenoshita, Hirohisa. 2013. Labour Market Flexibilisation and the Disadvantages of Immigrant Employment: Japanese-Brazilian Immigrants in Japan. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(7): 1177–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. The Japan Times. 2014. The Campaign to Take down Pick-up Artist Julien Blanc.Google Scholar
  70. Tsuda, Takeyuki. 2003. Strangers in the Ethnic Homeland. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Tsukasaki, Yūko. 2008. Gaikokujin Senmon/gijutsu-Shoku No Koyō Mondai [Problems of Employment of Foreign Skilled Labor]. Tokyo: Akaishi shoten.Google Scholar
  72. Twine, France Winddance, and Charles Gallagher. 2008. The Future of Whiteness: A Map of the ‘Third Wave’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(1): 4–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Varvara, Mukhina. 2011. Who Is the Threat? Influence of Migration on the Intimate Life of Migrant Wives in Cross-National Couples: A Case of Russian-Speaking Wives in Japan. In Proceedings of the 3rd Next-Generation Global Workshop, eds. Wakō Asato and Hideki Nakata, 413–429. Kyoto: Nakanishi Printing.Google Scholar
  74. Weiner, Michael, ed. 2009. Japan’s Minorities: The Illusion of Homogeneity, 2nd edn. New York: Abingdon and Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Yamagami, Mai, and James W. Tollefson. 2011. Elite Discourse of Globalization in Japan: The Role of English. In English in Japan in the Era of Globalization, ed. Philip Seargeant, 15–37. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yamashiro, Jane H. 2011. Racialized National Identity Construction in the Ancestral Homeland: Japanese American Migrants in Japan. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34 (9). Routledge: 1502–1521.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyDoshisha UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations