No Agency Without Grassroots Autonomy: A Framework for Evaluating Women’s Political Inclusion in Jordan, Bahrain, and Morocco
Today every state in the Middle East and North Africa incorporates women into the political process to some degree, but the extent of women’s political influence varies across the region. This chapter explores the experiences of women in the kingdoms of Bahrain, Jordan, and Morocco—three monarchies sometimes highlighted as success stories in terms of women’s empowerment. I argue that the presence of autonomous grassroots mobilization is key in facilitating women’s substantive political influence. That autonomy is at least partially contingent on the absence of internal mechanisms of control and rival agenda-setting such as GONGOs.
KeywordsWomen Middle East and North Africa GONGOs Arab world Authoritarian regimes Political participation and inclusion
- Abu Hanieh, Hassane. 2008. Women and Politics from the Perspective of Islamic Movements in Jordan. Hamburg: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
- Al Gharaibeh, Fakir. 2011. Women’s Empowerment in Bahrain. Journal of International Women’s Studies 12(3): 96–113.Google Scholar
- Bahrain Women’s Union. 2007. Bahraini Women’s Personal Rights in Light of the 2006 Parliamentary Elections. Analysis of a Quntitative and Qualitative Survey, Manama: Business Care Consulting Bureau.Google Scholar
- Bani Ali, Abdullah. 2014. In Jordan, child rights for foreign mothers will add to strengths. The National, 21 January. http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/in-jordan-child-rights-for-foreign-mothers-will-add-to-strengths.
- Blaydes, Lisa. 2011. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak’s Egypt. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Brand, Laurie. 1998. Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experiences. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Clark, Janine A. 2004. Islam, Charity, and Activism: Middle-Class Networks and Social Welfare in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Duverger, Maurice. 1955. The Political Role of Women. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Estito, Imad. 2012. Female Minister in Morocco’s New Government: One Too Many? Al-Akhbar English. January 23. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/3562.
- Fathi, Schirin H. 1994. Jordan – An Invented Nation? Tribe – State Dynamics and the Formation of National Identity. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient-Institut.Google Scholar
- Freedom House. 2009. Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Gulf Edition, ed. S. Kelly and J. Breslin. New York: Freedom House.Google Scholar
- Gause, F. Gregory. 1994. Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.Google Scholar
- Husseini, Rana. 2010. Jordan. In Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Progress Amid Resistance, eds. S. Kelly and J. Breslin. New York: Freedom House.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Lawyers, Journalists and Scholars Call for Scrapping Article 308. The Jordan Times, Nov 28. http://m.jordantimes.com/lawyers-journalists-and-scholars-call-for-scrapping-article-308.
- International Labor Organization (ILO). 2012. Global Employment Trends for Women 2012, International Labor Office, Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
- International Republican Institute (IRI). 2010. Morocco Overview. http://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/Morocco%202010-01-22.pdf. Accessed 22 Jan 2014.
- Inter-parliamentary Union (IPU). 2015. Women in National Parliaments. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm. Accessed 15 May 2015.
- Jamal, Amaney. 2010. Democratic Governance and Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). White Paper for Department for International Development (DFID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).Google Scholar
- Malkawi, Khetam. 2010. Activists Rejoice as Reem Badran Wins Seat Outside Quota. Jordan Times, November 11. http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=31766.
- Mahmood, Saba. 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Morocco Repeals Rape Marriage Law. 2014. Al-Jazeera, Jan 23. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/01/morocco-repeals-rape-marriage-law-2014123254643455.html.
- Paxton, Pamela, and Sheri Kunovich. 2007. Gender in Politics. Annual Review of Sociology 33: 263–284.Google Scholar
- Richards, Alan and John Waterbury. 2008. A Political Economy of the Middle East, 3rd ed. New York: Westview.Google Scholar
- ———. 2009. Language, Religion and Power in Morocco. In Untangling Modernities: Gendering Religion and Politics, eds. A. Braude and H. Herzog. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
- Salime, Zakia. 2008. Mobilizing Muslim Women: Multiple Voices, the Sharia, and the State. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 28(1): 200–211.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, Ron, Rodney Hero, Andrew Aoki, and Yvette Alex-Assensoh, 2002. Political Science, The New Immigration and Racial Politics of the United States: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know? Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
- ———, May. 1998. Women and Religion in Bahrain: An Emerging Identity. In Islam, Gender, & Social Change, eds. Yvonne Haddad and John Esposito. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Shryrock, Andrew. 1997. Nationalism and the Genealogical Imagination: Oral History and Textual Authority in Tribal Jordan. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Shukri, S. Shirin. 2007. Jordanian Women Make History in Municipal Elections. The Jordan Times.Google Scholar
- Siaroff, A. Alan. 2000. Women’s Representation in Legislatures and Cabinets in Industrial Democracies. International Political Science Review 21(2): 197–215.Google Scholar
- Studlar, Donley T., and Ian McAllister. 2002. Does a Critical Mass Exist? A Comparative Analysis of Women’s Legislative Representation Since 1950. European Journal of Political Research 41(2): 233–253.Google Scholar
- UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 2006. Towards Political Empowerment of Jordanian Women. http://www.refworld.org/docid/46cadacc0.html.
- Welborne, Bozena. 2010. The Strategic Use of Gender Quotas in the Arab World. IFES Fellowship in Democracy Studies White Paper.Google Scholar
- Welchman, Lynn. 2010. Bahrain, Qatar, UAE: First time Family Law Codifications. In Three Gulf States International Survey of Family Law, 2010 edn, ed. B. Atkin. Bristol: Jordan Publishing.Google Scholar
- Wolbrecht, Christina. and Rodney Hero, eds. 2005. The Politics of Democratic Inclusion. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- World Values Survey Wave 6. 2010–2014. Official Aggregate v.20140429. World Values Survey Association. Aggregate File Producer: Asep/JDS, Madrid, Spain. www.worldvaluessurvey.org.
- Wright, Steven. 2008. Fixing the Kingdom: Political Evolution and the Socio-Economic Challenges of Bahrain. Center for International and Regional Studies. Georgetown University School of Foreign Service Qatar. Occasional Paper No. 3.Google Scholar
- Zvan, Katja. 2007. The Politics of the Reform of the New Family Law (the Moudawana). Master’s Thesis submitted to St. Antony’s College, Faculty of Oriental Studies, Oxford University. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~metheses/Zvan%20thesis.pdf.