No Agency Without Grassroots Autonomy: A Framework for Evaluating Women’s Political Inclusion in Jordan, Bahrain, and Morocco

  • Bozena C. Welborne
Part of the Comparative Feminist Studies book series (CFS)


Today every state in the Middle East and North Africa incorporates women into the political process to some degree, but the extent of women’s political influence varies across the region. This chapter explores the experiences of women in the kingdoms of Bahrain, Jordan, and Morocco—three monarchies sometimes highlighted as success stories in terms of women’s empowerment. I argue that the presence of autonomous grassroots mobilization is key in facilitating women’s substantive political influence. That autonomy is at least partially contingent on the absence of internal mechanisms of control and rival agenda-setting such as GONGOs.


Women Middle East and North Africa GONGOs Arab world Authoritarian regimes Political participation and inclusion 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bozena C. Welborne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GovernmentSmith CollegeNorthamptonUSA

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