Advertisement

National Invective and Environmental Exploitation in Thomas Bernhard’s Frost

  • Sean Ireton
Chapter
  • 394 Downloads
Part of the Literatures, Cultures, and the Environment book series (LCE)

Abstract

Frost belongs to the distinctively Austrian genre of the anti-Heimat novel and as such critiques the state of affairs in the Second Republic. Bernhard specifically condemns his homeland’s hypocritical stance toward its National Socialist past and its postwar attempt to reinvent itself by fetishizing its unspoiled Alpine scenery and wholesome rustic citizenry. His national invective is rooted in environmental as much as political history. In the course of the novel, forests are harvested by the cellulose industry and an entire river drainage is dammed for the construction of a major power plant, which is modeled on the Glockner-Kaprun hydroelectric facility, one of many modernization projects carried out under the mantle of a New Austria but whose origins extend back to the era of German-Austro fascism.

Keywords

Power Plant Environmental Exploitation Deep Ecology Transport Tunnel National Anthem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Works Cited

  1. Bahr, Hermann. “Adalbert Stifter: Eine Entdeckung.” Essays von Hermann Bahr, edited by H. Kindermann, Bauer, 1962.Google Scholar
  2. Barthofer, Alfred. “Die Sprache der Natur: Anmerkungen zur Natur und Naturdarstellung bei Adalbert Stifter und Thomas Bernhard.” Vierteljahresschrift des Adalbert-Stifter-Instituts des Landes Oberösterreich, vol. 35, no. 3/4, pp. 213–26.Google Scholar
  3. Bate, Jonathan. The Song of the Earth. Harvard UP, 2000.Google Scholar
  4. Beer, Otto F. “Endspiel im Salzburgischen.” Süddeutsche Zeitung, 17/18 Aug, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. Bernhard, Thomas. Frost. Edited by Martin Huber and Wendelin Schmidt-Dengler, Werke in 22 Bänden, vol. 1, Suhrkamp, 2003.Google Scholar
  6. ———. Frost. Translated by Michael Hofmann, Knopf, 2006.Google Scholar
  7. Foltz, Bruce F. Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature. Humanities Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Fritsch, Gerhard. Fasching. Roman. Suhrkamp, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. Garrard, Greg. Ecocriticism. 2nd edition, Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  10. ———. “Heidegger Nazism Ecocriticism.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment, vol. 17, no. 2, 2010, pp. 251–71.Google Scholar
  11. Greiner, Ulrich. “Der Tod des Nachsommers: Über das ‘Österreichische’ in der österreichischen Literatur.” Der Tod des Nachsommers: Aufsätze, Porträts, Kritiken zur österreichischen Gegenwartsliteratur, Hanser, 1979, pp. 11–57.Google Scholar
  12. Heidegger, Martin. “The Question Concerning Technology.” Translated by William Lovitt, Heidegger: Basic Writings, edited by David Ferrell Krell, Harper, 1977, pp. 283–317.Google Scholar
  13. Hoell, Joachim. Mythenreiche Vorstellungswelt und ererbter Alptraum: Ingeborg Bachmann und Thomas Bernhard. VanBremen, 2000.Google Scholar
  14. Höller, Hans. Kritik einer literarischen Form: Versuch über Thomas Bernhard. Stuttgarter Arbeiten zur Germanistik, vol. 50, Akademischer Verlag Hans-Dieter Heinz, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Honegger, Gitta. Thomas Bernhard: The Making of an Austrian. Yale UP, 2001.Google Scholar
  16. Hutter, Clemens M. Kaprun: Geschichte eines Erfolgs. Residenz, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. Jelinek, Elfriede. In den Alpen: Drei Dramen. Berlin Verlag, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. Jurgensen, Manfred. Thomas Bernhard: Der Kegel im Wald oder die Geometrie der Verneinung. Peter Lang, 1991.Google Scholar
  19. Klug, Christian. “Thomas Bernhards Roman Frost (1963): Problemgehalt, Erzähltechnik und literaturgeschichtlicher Standort.” Der deutsche Roman nach 1945: Themen, Texte, Interpretationen, edited by Manfred Brauneck, C.C. Buchners Verlag, 1993.Google Scholar
  20. Kos, Wolfgang. Eigenheim Österreich: Zu Politik, Kultur und Alltag nach 1945. Sonderzahl, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. Krylova, Katya. “‘Eine den Menschen zerzausende Landschaft’: Psychotopography and the Alpine Landscape in Thomas Bernhard’s Frost.” Austrian Studies, vol. 18, 2010, pp. 74–88.Google Scholar
  22. LaChapelle, Dolores. Earth Wisdom. Guild of Tutors Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. Malchow, Timothy B. “Thomas Bernhard’s Frost and Adalbert Stifter: Literature, Legacy, and National Identity in the Early Austrian Second Republic.” German Studies Review, vol. 28, no. 1, 2005, pp. 65–84.Google Scholar
  24. Menasse, Robert. Das war Österreich: Gesammelte Essays zum Land ohne Eigenschaften. Edited by Eva Schörkhuber, Suhrkamp, 2005.Google Scholar
  25. Mittermayer, Manfred. “Natur und Natürlichkeit bei Thomas Bernhard: Rekonstruktion eines Wortfelds.” Der “Heimatdichter” Thomas Bernhard, edited by Ilija Dürhammer and Pia Janke, Holzhausen, 1999, pp. 17–36.Google Scholar
  26. ———. Thomas Bernhard. Metzler, 1995.Google Scholar
  27. Mittermayer, Manfred, and Sabine Veits-Falk, editors. Thomas Bernhard und Salzburg: 22 Annäherungen. Jung und Jung, 2001.Google Scholar
  28. Ozturk, Anthony. “Geo-Poetics: The Alpine Sublime in Art and Literature, 1779–1860.” Heights of Reflection: Mountains in the German Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Twenty-First Century, edited by Sean Ireton and Caroline Schaumann, Camden House, 2012, pp. 77–97.Google Scholar
  29. Pizer, John. “Turning to and away from the Highest Canonical Authority: A Reexamination of Thomas Bernhard’s Reception of Adalbert Stifter in Frost.” Journal of Austrian Studies, vol. 46, no. 2, 2013, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ransmayr, Christoph. “Kaprun: Eine Mauer wird zum Mythos.” MERIAN, vol. 38, no. 1, January 1985, pp. 28–31, 114–18.Google Scholar
  31. ———. “Kaprun: Oder die Errichtung einer Mauer.” Der Weg nach Surabaya: Reportagen und kleine Prosa, 4th edition, S. Fischer, 1997, pp. 75–90.Google Scholar
  32. Reiter, Margit. “Das Tauernkraftwerk Kaprun.” NS-Zwangsarbeit in der Elektrizitätswirtschaft der “Ostmark,” 1938–1945: Ennskraftwerke – Kaprun – Draukraftwerke – Ybbs-Persenbeug – Ernsthofen, edited by Oliver Rathkolb and Florian Freund, Böhlau, 2002, pp. 127–98.Google Scholar
  33. Rigby, Kate. “Earth, World, Text: On the (Im)possibility of Ecopoiesis.” New Literary History, vol. 35, 2004, 427–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rumler, Fritz. “Alpenbeckett und Menschenfeind.” Der Spiegel, vol. 32, 31 July, 1972, p. 98.Google Scholar
  35. Schaumann, Caroline. “From Meadows to Mountaintops: Albrecht von Haller’s ‘Die Alpen.’” Heights of Reflection: Mountains in the German Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Twenty-First Century, edited by Sean Ireton and Caroline Schaumann, Camden House, 2012, pp. 57–76.Google Scholar
  36. Schmidt-Dengler, Wendelin. “Drei Naturen: Bernhard, Jandl, Handke –– Destruktion, Reduktion, Restauration. Anmerkungen zum Naturbegriff der drei Autoren.” Der Übertreibungskünstler: Studien zu Thomas Bernhard, Sonderzahl, 1989, pp. 64–86.Google Scholar
  37. Sharp, Francis Michael. “Thomas Bernhard: Literary Cryogenics or Art on Ice.” Modern Austrian Literature, vol. 21, no. 3/4, 1988, pp. 201–15.Google Scholar
  38. Shepard, Paul. “If You Care about Nature You Can’t Go On Hating the Germans Like This.” Deep Ecology, edited by Michael Tobias, revised second printing, Avant Books, 1988, pp. 206–12.Google Scholar
  39. Straub, Wolfgang. “Richtige Menschen und unmögliche Bauwerke –– Das Kraftwerk: ein Seitenstrang österreichischer Literatur zwischen Mythos und touristischem Topos.” Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur, vol. 46, 2002, pp. 26–39.Google Scholar
  40. ——— “Brücken, Pisten, Kraftwerke: Orte und Nicht-Orte der Republik.” Raum: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Raumplanung und Regionalpolitik, vol. 57, 2005, pp. 44–49.Google Scholar
  41. Thuswaldner, Gregor. “Morbus Austriacus”: Thomas Bernhards Österreichkritik. Zur neueren Literatur Österreichs, vol. 23, Braumüller, 2011.Google Scholar
  42. Zimmerman, Michael E. Contesting Earth’s Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. U California P, 1994.Google Scholar
  43. ———. Heidegger’s Confrontation with Modernity: Technology, Politics, Art. Indiana UP, 1990.Google Scholar
  44. ———. “Implications of Heidegger’s Thought for Deep Ecology.” The Schoolman, vol. 64, 1986, pp. 19–43.Google Scholar
  45. ———. “Toward a Heideggerean Ethos for Radical Environmentalism.” Environmental Ethics, vol. 5, 1983, pp. 99–131.Google Scholar
  46. Zuckmayer, Carl. “Ein Sinnbild der großen Kälte: Ein zweiunddreißjähriger Autor aus Österreich entwirft die Szenerie einer großen Hölle.” Die Zeit, no. 25 (21 June 1963), p. 14. Reprinted in Botond, Anneliese, editor. Über Thomas Bernhard. Suhrkamp, 1970, pp. 81–88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Ireton
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations