Advertisement

Transgender Issues in Sport and Leisure

  • Ann Travers
Chapter

Abstract

The “transgender challenge” to the binary-based organization of most sport and many leisure activities is complex and potentially transformative. From relatively conservative campaigns and policies to enable binary-conforming and medically transitioned athletes to compete in their affirmed gender to more radical challenges to the very science of sex difference that naturalizes an ideologically constructed two-sex system, the world of sport is experiencing a shake-up. In this chapter, I describe and analyze changes at the policy level of key sporting institutions in terms of their conservative versus transformative potential.

References

  1. Aultman, B. (2014). Cisgender. Transgender Studies Quarterly, 1(1/2), 61–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BBC. (2015). Dutee Chand cleared to race as IAAF suspends ‘gender test’ rules. BBC Sport. Retrieved August 8, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/sport/0/athletics/33683779
  3. Bell Media. (2015). Record audience for the FIFA Women’s World Cup Canada 2015 opening match on CTV, TSN, and RDS. Bellmedia.ca. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.bellmedia.ca/pr/press/record-audience-fifa-womens-world-cup-canada-2015-opening-match-ctv-tsn-rds/
  4. Berkowitz, D., & Ryan, M. (2011). Bathrooms, baseball, and bra shopping: Lesbian and gay parents talk about engendering their children. Sociological Perspectives, 54(3), 329–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birrell, S., & Cole, C. L. (1990). Double-fault: Renee Richards and the construction and naturalization of difference. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birrell, S., & McDonald, M. (Eds.). (2000). Reading sport: Critical essays on power and representation. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Broad, K. L. (2001). The gendered unapologetic: Queer resistance in women’s sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18, 181–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bullough, V., & Bullough, B. (1993). Cross dressing, sex and gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  9. Burstyn, V. (1999). The rites of men: Manhood, politics and the culture of sport. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. (2012). Sport in transition: Making sport in Canada more responsible for gender inclusivity. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport.Google Scholar
  13. Canadian Press. (2014). Human rights complaint prompts new gender policy in Vancouver Catholic schools. Retrieved August 29, 2014, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/human-rights-complaint-prompts-new-gender-policy-in-vancouver-catholic-schools-1.2709429
  14. Canadian Teachers Federation. (2012). Supporting transgender and transsexual students in K-12 schools: A guide for educators. Ottawa: Canadian teachers Federation.Google Scholar
  15. Carrington, B., & Mcdonald, I. (2009). Marxism, cultural studies and sport: Mapping the field. In B. Carrington & I. Mcdonald (Eds.), Marxism, cultural studies and sport (pp. 1–12). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Carter, T. (2008). The quality of home runs: The passion, politics, and language of Cuban baseball. Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caudwell, J. (2014). [Transgender] young men: Gendered subjectivities and the physically active body. Sport, Education and Society, 19(4), 398–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavanagh, S., & Sykes, H. (2006). Transsexual bodies at the Olympics: The International Olympic Committee’s policy on transsexual athletes at the 2004 Athens summer games. Body and Society, 12, 75–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crenshaw, K. (1998). Fighting the post-affirmative action war. New York: Essence Communications Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Douglas, D. (2013). Forget me…not: Marion Jones and the politics of punishment. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 38(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dowling, C. (2000). The frailty myth. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  22. Ehrensaft, D. (2012). Gender born, gender made. New York: The Experiment, LLC.Google Scholar
  23. Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. FIFA. (2015). Record-breaking FIFA Women’s World Cup tops 750 million TV viewers. Fifa.com . Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.fifa.com/womensworldcup/news/y=2015/m=12/news=record-breaking-fifa-women-s-world-cup-tops-750-million-tv-viewers-2745963.html
  25. Griffin, P., & Carroll, H. (2010). On the team: Equal opportunity for transgender student athletes. co-Sponsored by NCLR, Women’s Sports Foundation, and It Takes a Team.Google Scholar
  26. Halberstam, J. (1998). Female masculinity. London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hall, M. A. (2002). The girl and the game. Toronto: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hargreaves, J. (2002). Sporting females: Critical issues in the history and sociology of women’s sport. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Hellen, M. (2009). Transgender children in schools. Liminalis, 3, 81–99.Google Scholar
  30. Hill Collins, P. (2005). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Kane, M. J. (1995). Resistance/transformation of the oppositional binary: Exposing sport as a continuum. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19, 191–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kidd, B. (2009). Interview with CTV.Google Scholar
  33. Kirby, S., & Huebner, J. (2002). Talking about sex: Biology and the social interpretations of sex in sport. Canadian Woman Studies, 21(3), 36–43.Google Scholar
  34. Lemert, C. (2002). Dark thoughts: Race and the eclipse of society. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Lenskyj, H. (2013). Inside the Olympic industry: Power, politics, and activism. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lenskyj, H. (2003). Out on the field. Toronto: Women’s Press.Google Scholar
  37. Love, A. (2014). Transgender exclusion and inclusion in sport. In J. Hargreaves & E. Anderson (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sport, gender and sexuality (pp. 376–383). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Love, A., & Kelly, K. (2011). Equity or essentialism? US courts and the legitimation of girls’ teams in high school sport. Gender and Society, 25(2), 227–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lovett, C. (1997). Olympic marathon: A centennial history of the games’ most storied race. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  40. Macionis, J., & Gerber, L. (2011). Sociology. Toronto: Pearson.Google Scholar
  41. Martin, B., & Martin, J. (1995). Compared perceived sex role orientations of the ideal male and female athlete to the ideal male and female person. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18(4), 286–302.Google Scholar
  42. McArdle, D. (2008). Swallows and amazons, or the sporting exception to the gender recognition act. Social and Legal Studies, 17(1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McDonagh, E., & Pappano, L. (2008). Playing with the boys. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Messner, M. (2007). Out of play: Critical essays on gender and sport. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  45. Messner, M. (2011). Gender ideologies, youth sports, and the production of soft essentialism. Sociology of Sport Journal, 28, 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meyer, E. (2010). Gender and sexual diversity in schools. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. NCAA Office of Inclusion. (2011). NCAA Inclusion of Transgender Student-Athletes.Google Scholar
  48. Nyong’o, T. (2009). The unforgiveable transgression of being Caster Semenya. Bully Bloggers. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from http://bullybloggers.wordpress.com/2009/09/08/the-unforgivable-transgression-of-being-caster-semenya/
  49. Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude, you’re a fag. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. Pilgrim, J., Martin, D., & Binder, W. (2002). Far from the finish line: Transsexualism and athletic competition. Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal, 13(2), 495–549.Google Scholar
  51. Pronger, B. (1990). The arena of masculinity: Sports, homosexuality and the meaning of sex. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  52. Puar, J. (2007). Terrorist assemblages: Homonationalism in queer times. Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Public Health Agency of Canada. (2010). Questions and answers: Gender identity in schools. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.Google Scholar
  54. Ring, J. (2008). Stolen bases: Why American girls don’t play baseball. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  55. Robinson, L. (2009). The Olympics, an all boys club? Winnipeg Free Press.Google Scholar
  56. Rothblatt, M. (1995). The apartheid of sex: A manifesto on the freedom of gender. New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Sullivan, C. (2011). Gender verification and gender policies in elite sport: Eligibility and ‘fair play’. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 3(5), 400–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sykes, H. (2006). Transsexual and transgender policies in sport. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 15(1), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Symons, C., & Hemphill, D. (2006). Transgender sex and sport in the gay games. In J. Caudwell (Ed.), Sport, sexualities, and queer/theory (pp. 109–128). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Tagg, B. (2012). Transgender netballers: Ethical issues and lived realities. Sociology of Sport Journal, 29(2), 151–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Teetzel, S. (2006). On transgendered athletes, fairness and doping: An international challenge. Sport in Society, 9(2), 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Travers, A. (2006). Queering sport: Lesbian softball leagues and the transgender challenge. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 41(3/4), 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Travers, A. (2008). The sport nexus and gender injustice. Studies in Social Justice Journal, 2(1), 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Travers, A., & Deri, J. (2010). Transgender inclusion and the changing face of lesbian softball leagues. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(4), 488–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Travers, A. (2013). Thinking the unthinkable: Imagining an ‘un-American,’ girl-friendly, women- and trans-inclusive alternative for baseball. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 37(1), 78–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Travers, A. (2016). Transgender and gender nonconforming kids and the binary requirements of sport participation in North America. In M. Messner & M. Musto (Eds.), Child’s play: Sport in kids’ worlds. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  67. US Transgender Law and Policy Institute. (2009). Guidelines for creating policies for transgender children in recreational sports. US Transgender Law and Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  68. Zeigler, C. (2012). Caster Semenya qualifies for London Olympics in 800 m. Outsports.com . Retrieved October 12, 2015, from http://www.outsports.com/2012/5/1/4053048/caster-semenya-qualifies-for-london-olympics-in-800
  69. Zeigler, C. (2015). Dutee Chand wins three national titles as HBO Real Sports explores her story and gender testing. Outsports.com . Retrieved October 12, 2015 from http://www.outsports.com/2015/9/21/9369643/dutee-chand-hbo-real-sports-gender-testing
  70. Zirin, D. (2007). Welcome to the terrordome: The pain, politics, and promise of sports. Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Travers
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations