Advertisement

A Cartography of Higher Education: Attempts at Inclusion and Insights from Pasifika Scholarship in Aotearoa New Zealand

Chapter
Part of the Education Dialogues with/in the Global South book series (EDGS)

Abstract

Higher education institutions have used the banner of "diversity" for a wide range of initiatives that aim to support the presence of "different" bodies and perspectives within academic spaces. However, these initiatives tend to reproduce rather than transform dominant ways of knowing and being. Drawing on the work of Sara Ahmed, Pasifika scholarship, and using the methodology of social cartography of Rolland Paulston, this chapter explores what practices of diversity and inclusion could look like if epistemological dominance was recognized as problematic. Focusing on Pasifika in Aotearoa New Zealand, the authors explore how higher education institutions practice diversity and how Pasifika peoples in higher education have attempted to bring their own epistemological understandings into the Eurocentric space.

Keywords

High Education Indigenous People High Education Institution Indigenous Knowledge White Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahenakew, C., V.O. Andreotti, G. Cooper, and H. Hireme. 2014. Beyond Epistemic Provincialism: De-provincializing Indigenous Resistance. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 10(3): 216–231.Google Scholar
  2. Ahenakew, C., and S. Naepi. 2015. The Difficult Task of Turning Walls into Tables. In Sociocultural Theory: Implications for Curricular Across the Sector, eds. A. Macfarlane, M. Webber, and S. Macfarlane, 181–194. Christchurch, NZ: University of Canterbury Press (With Editors).Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, S. 2004. Declarations of Whiteness: The Non-performativity of Anti-racism. Borderlands E-Journal, 3(2). http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol3no2_2004/ahmed_declarations.htm.
  4. ———. 2009. Embodying Diversity: Problems and Paradoxes for Black Feminists. Race Ethnicity and Education 12(1): 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2012. On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Airini. M. Anae, K. Mila-Schaff, E. Coxon, D. Mara, and K. Sanga. 2010a. Teu le va Relationships Across Research and Policy in Pasifika Education. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Ministry of Education. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/75897/944_TeuLeVa-30062010.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2014.
  7. Airini. D. Brown, E. Curtis, O. Johnson, F. Luatua, and M. Ulugia-Pua. 2010b. Success for All: Improving Māori and Pasifika Learner Success in Degree-Level Studies. Teaching and Learning Research Initiative website: http://www.tlri.org.nz/assets/A_Project-PDFs/9247-Airinisites/default/files/projects/9247-Airini-final-report.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb 2014.
  8. Alkema, A. 2014. Success for Pasifika in Tertiary Education: Highlights from Ako Aotearoa-Supported Research. Ako Aotearoa—The National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence. https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-4/success-for-pasifika-in-tertiary-education-highlights-from-ako-aotearoa-supported-research-in-2013.pdf. Accessed 9 Jan 2014.
  9. Anae, M. 2010. Research for Better Pacific Schooling in New Zealand. Teu le va—A Samoan Perspective. Mai Review 1: 1–24. https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/14419. Accessed Oct 24 2015.
  10. Andreotti, V.O., S. Stein, C. Ahenakew, and D. Hunt. 2015. Mapping Interpretations of Decolonization in the Context of Higher Education. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education and Society 4(1): 21–40.Google Scholar
  11. Bannerji, H. 2000. The Paradox of Diversity: The Construction of a Multicultural Canada and “Women of Color”. Women’s Studies International Forum 23(5): 537–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonilla-Silva, E. 2006. Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Brayboy, B.M.J., A.E. Castagno, and E. Maughan. 2007. Equality and Justice for All? Examining Race in Education Scholarship. Review of Research in Education 31(1): 159–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coxon, E., L. Foliaki, and D. Mara. 1994. Pacific Education. In The Politics of Learning and Teaching in Aotearoa New Zealand, eds. K. Coxon, K. Jenkins, J. Marshall, and L. Massey, 280–214. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chilisa, B. 2011. Indigenous Research Methodologies. Washington, DC: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper, G. 2012. Kaupapa Māori research: Epistemic wilderness as freedom? New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 47(2): 64–73. Google Scholar
  17. Curtis, E., E. Wikaire, T. Lualua-Aatai, B. Kool, W. Nepia, M. Ruka, M. Honey, F. Kelly, and P. Poole. 2012. Tātou Tātou/Success for All: Improving Māori Student Success. Ako Aotearoa website: retrieved 03 December 2015 from http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-1652/tatou-tatou--success-for-all-improving-Māori-student-success.pdf.Google Scholar
  18. Education Counts. 2014. Tertiary Participation Rates. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/pasifika/progress_against_pasifika_education_plan_targets#14. Accessed 10 Mar 2015.
  19. Ferguson, R.A. 2012. The Reorder of Things: The University and its Pedagogies of Minority Difference. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grande, S. 2008. Red pedagogy: The Un-Methodology. In Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies, eds. N. K. Denzin, Y. S. Lincoln, and L. T. Smith, 233–254, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publ Ltd.Google Scholar
  21. Grosfoguel, R. 2012. The Dilemmas of Ethnic Studies in the United States: Between Liberal Multiculturalism, Identity Politics, Disciplinary Colonization, and Decolonial Epistemologies. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 10(1): 81–90.Google Scholar
  22. Grosfoguel, R. 2013. The structure of knowledge in Westernized universities. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, 11(1), 73–90.Google Scholar
  23. Gusa, D.L. 2010. White Institutional Presence: The Impact of Whiteness on Campus Climate. Harvard Educational Review 80(4): 464–489.Google Scholar
  24. Harper, S.R. 2012. Race Without Racism: How Higher Education Researchers Minimize Racist Institutional Norms. The Review of Higher Education 36(1): 9–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hurtado, S., A.R. Alvarado, and C. Guillermo-Wann. 2015. Thinking About Race: The Salience of Racial Identity at Two-and Four-Year Colleges and the Climate for Diversity. The Journal of Higher Education 86(1): 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuokkanen, R. 2008. What is Hospitality in the Academy? Epistemic Ignorance and the (Im)possible Gift. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies 30(1): 60–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonardo, Z. 2004. The Color of Supremacy: Beyond the Discourse of ‘White Privilege’. Educational Philosophy and Theory 36(2): 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manu’atu, L. and M. Keoa. 2002. Towards Reconstituting the Notion of Study Clinics. A Kakai Tonga Tu’a Community-based educational project. Invited Presentation to the First National Pasifika Bilingual Education Conference. Auckland: Alexandra Park Conference Centre.Google Scholar
  29. Mayeda, D.T., M. Keil, H.D. Dutton, and I. Ofamo’oni. 2014. Māori and Pacific Voices on Student Success in Higher Education. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 10(2): 165–179.Google Scholar
  30. Mignolo, W. 2002. The Geopolitics of Knowledge and the Colonial Difference. The South Atlantic Quarterly 101(1): 57–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mila-Schaff, K., and E. Robinson. 2010. ‘Polycultural’ Capital and Educational Achievement among NZ Born Pacific Peoples. Mai Review 1: 1–18 .http://web.its.auckland.ac.nz/ojs.review.mai.ac.nz/index.php/MR/article/viewArticle/307.Google Scholar
  32. Nabobo-Baba, U. 2011. Decolonising Framings in Pacific Research: Indigenous Fijian Vanua Research Framework as an Organic Response. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 4(2): 141–154.Google Scholar
  33. Nakhid, C. 2006. Ethics and the Obstruction of Social Justice for Māori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) Students in Tertiary Institutions in Aotearoa (New Zealand). Race Ethnicity and Education 9(3): 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Newhouse, D. 2008. Ganigonhi:Oh. The Good Mind Meets the Academy. Canadian Journal of Native Education 31(1): 184–197.Google Scholar
  35. New Zealand Ministry of Education and Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment. 2014. Tertiary Education Strategy 2014-2019, Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/~/media/MinEdu/Files/EducationSectors/TertiaryEducation/TertiaryEducationStrategy2014/MOE_TES2014_V9.pdfGoogle Scholar
  36. Osei-Kofi, N., L.E. Torres, and J. Lui. 2013. Practices of Whiteness: Racialization in College. Race Ethnicity and Education 16(3): 386–405.Google Scholar
  37. Otunuku, M.A. 2011. How Can Talanoa Be Used Effectively as an Indigenous Research Methodology with Tongan People? Pacific-Asian Education 23(2): 43–52.Google Scholar
  38. Patterson, S. 2012. Voices of Taciqu: Teaching and Learning Practices in Non-Lecture Settings for Māori and Pasifika Success in the First Year of a Bachelor of Arts. (unpublished thesis). New Zealand: University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  39. Paulston, R.G. 2009. Mapping Comparative Education After Postmodernity. In International Handbook of Comparative Education, eds. R. Cowen and A.M. Kazamias, 965–990. New York: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Perrott, A. 2007. Pasifika: Identity or Illusion? Canvas Magazine, New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/tongans-in-nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=346andobjectid=10455473. Accessed 13 Sept 2014.
  41. Povinelli, E. 2002. The Cunning of Recognition: Indigenous Alterities and the Making of Australian Multiculturalism. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prescott, S.M. 2008. Using Talanoa in Pacific Business Research in New Zealand: Experiences with Tongan Entrepreneurs. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 4(1): 128–148.Google Scholar
  43. Rodríguez, D. 2012. Racial/Colonial Genocide and the “Neoliberal Academy”: In Excess of a Problematic. American Quarterly 64(4): 809–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roshanravan, S. 2012. Staying Home While Studying Abroad: Anti-imperial Praxis for Globalizing Feminist Visions. Journal of Feminist Scholarship 2: 1–23.Google Scholar
  45. Rust, V.D., and A. Kenderes. 2011. Paulston and Paradigms. In Beyond the Comparative, eds. J. Weidman and J.W. Jacob, 19–29. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Samu, T. 2010. Pacific Education: An Oceanic Perspective. Mai Review 1: 1–14 .http://web.its.auckland.ac.nz/ojs.review.mai.ac.nz/index.php/MR/article/viewFile/311/379. Accessed 24 Oct 2015.Google Scholar
  47. Santos, J.L., N.L. Cabrera, and K.J. Fosnacht. 2010. Is “Race-Neutral” Really Race-Neutral?: Disparate Impact Towards Underrepresented Minorities in Post-2009 UC System Admissions. The Journal of Higher Education 81(6): 675–701.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, A. 2009. Native Studies Beyond the Academic-Industrial Complex. In “I Thought Pocahontas Was a Movie”: Perspectives on Race/Culture Binaries in Education and Service Professions, eds. C. Schick and J. McNinch, 79–89. Regina: CPRC Press.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, L.T. 2012. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, 2nd edn. New York: Zed Books, Ltd.Google Scholar
  50. Statistics New Zealand. 2014. Major Ethnic Groups in New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/infographic-culture-identity.aspx. Accessed 10 Mar 2015.
  51. Suaalii-Sauni, T., and S.M. Fulu-Aiolupotea. 2014. Decolonising Pacific Research, Building Pacific Research Communities and Developing Pacific Research Tools: The Case of the Talanoa and the Faafaletui in Samoa. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 55(3): 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vaioleti, T. 2006. Talanoa Research Methodology: A Developing Position on Pacific Research. Waikato Journal of Education 12: 21–34.Google Scholar
  53. Yosso, T.J., L. Parker, D.G. Solórzano, and M. Lynn. 2004. From Jim Crow to Affirmative Action and Back Again: A Critical Race Discussion of Racialized Rationales and Access to Higher Education. Review of Research in Education 28: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational StudiesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations