The Schooling of Marginalized Students in Urban Canada: Programs, Curricula, and Pedagogies

Part of the Education Dialogues with/in the Global South book series (EDGS)


Employing a critical education framework, Carl James discusses the theories, programs, and practices of Canadian educators in their attempts to be responsive to the needs, interests, and aspirations of their culturally diverse student population. He traces the movement from multiculturalism to antiracism to culturally responsive and relevant pedagogical approaches to education, noting the challenges, limitations, opportunities, and possibilities that mediate attempts to provide inclusive and equitable schooling to students residing in urban and “suburban” contexts. Readers are introduced to the “community-referenced” approach to education (CRAE) which is based on equitable, democratic, and inclusive practices to enhance school effectiveness, student participation, and parental and community engagement. James describes how this approach to schooling might better facilitate and provide a more effective culturally relevant and responsive teaching/learning.


Community Member Cultural Capital School Board Teacher Candidate Race Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am indebted to Julia Samaroo and Krysta Pandolfi who provided very valuable research and editing assistance in the various editions of this chapter. Also, my appreciation goes to Carol Reid and Jae Major for inviting me into this project, and who with the reviewer provided very helpful comments and suggestions on the early version of the chapter.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationYork UniversityTorontoCanada

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