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Troubled and Secure Gender Identities in a Changing Society: Norway at the End of the Long Nineteenth Century

  • Ida Blom
Chapter
Part of the Citizenship, Gender and Diversity book series (FEMCIT)

Abstract

At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, Norway changed from a mainly agrarian to a more urban and industrialized society. These changes offered women new possibilities. In 1884 they were admitted to academic studies, and through a complicated process between 1890 and 1913, they gained suffrage rights. Both these events offered women access to worlds that had until then been reserved for men. Consequently, understandings of both masculinity and femininity were questioned. Troubled understandings of gender identities departed from a long period of what in this chapter is called a secure gender identity, accepting hegemonic masculinity and difference femininity as the norm.

Departing from Raywyn Connell’s theory of relations between hegemonic masculinity and fearful masculinity, this chapter analyzes how different masculinities reacted to different femininities, a classical difference femininity as well as a new equal rights femininity.

At the end of the period, expressions of a new form of secure gender identity emerged when some women and men cooperated in achieving equal rights. However, it was not until the 1970s that this understanding of secure gender identity gained importance.

Keywords

Nineteenth Century Gender Identity Academic Study Hegemonic Masculinity Superior Masculinity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ida Blom
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BergenSøreidgrendNorway

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