Targeting Infrastructure

  • Elina Brutschin


Chapter 5 traces the evolution of policies related to trans-European gas infrastructure from 1980 to 2016. This major building block of the European gas security architecture has received little attention from academia so far. This is partially because some major legislation on European infrastructure was passed only recently. The number of occasions when the Commission could use its formal powers was therefore limited. Instead, the Commission had to rely more on networked governance and personal leadership of its Commissioners. In particular, given that the Commission still lacks a clear competence in external energy policy, the development of new gas links proved to be difficult.


Trans-European networks Pipeline diplomacy Gas Coordination Group LNG 


  1. Agence Europe. (2009c, May 28). A look behind the news, by Ferdinando Riccardi: Reviewing the complexity of EU-Russian relations. Agence Europe. Google Scholar
  2. Agence Europe. (2010b). A fully functional internal energy market is the best defence against supply disruptions, says Alejo Vidal-Quadras. Agence Europe.Google Scholar
  3. Austrian News Digest. (2004, January 28). Austria’s OMV To expand co-operation in Iran. Austrian News Digest.Google Scholar
  4. Baev, P.K., & Øverland, I. (2010). The South stream versus Nabucco pipeline race: geopolitical and economic (ir)rationales and political stakes in mega-projects. International Affairs, 86(5), 1075–1090. Scholar
  5. Bilgin, M. (2009). Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East. Energy Policy, 37(11), 4482–4492. Scholar
  6. Buckens, M.-M. (2012). Energy: ITRE lends support to infrastructure package. Europolitics Energy.Google Scholar
  7. Commission of the European Communities. (1990b). Towards trans-European networks for a Community action programme. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. COM (90) 585 final, 10 December 1990 [EU Commission - COM Document]. Accessed September 2016.
  8. de Jong, J., Glachant, J.-M., Hafner, M., Ahner, N., & Tagliapietra, S. (2012). A new EU gas security of supply architecture? Accessed September 2016.
  9. E-Control. (2016). The EU’s energy infrastructure package. Accessed January 2016.
  10. European Commission. (2011). Commission Staff Working Paper. Impact assessment accompanying the document Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure and repealing Decision No 1364/2006/EC. Accessed January 2016.
  11. European Commission. (2015b). European Commission—Press release—Commission, France, Portugal and Spain set up High Level Group to break energy barriers. Accessed September 2016.
  12. EurActiv. (2009, March 3). Merkel: No funding for Nabucco [Merkel: Keine EU-Gelder für Nabucco]. Accessed April 2016.
  13. EurActiv. (2013a). EU-backed Nabucco project “over” after rival pipeline wins Azeri gas bid. Accessed September 2016.
  14. European Commission. (2014c). European Commission—Press release—Mergers: Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Greek gas transmission system operator DESFA by SOCAR. Accessed April 2016.
  15. European Commission. (2016a). European Commission—PRESS RELEASES—Press release—Security of gas supply regulation.
  16. European Commission. (2016e). European Commission—Press release—Speech by Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič on “Nord Stream II – Energy Union at the crossroads.” Accessed April 2016.
  17. European Commission. (2016b). Projects of common interest—Energy—European Commission. Accessed April 2016.
  18. European Commission. (2016d). Gas and oil supply routes—Energy—European commission. Accessed April 2016.
  19. European Commission. (2016c). Review of the Decision on information exchange mechanism with regard to intergovernmental agreements (IGA) between Member States and third countries in the field of Energy. Accessed January 2016.
  20. European Parliament. (2015). Trans-European Networks—guidelines. Accessed April 2016.
  21. European Parliament. (2016). Briefing European parliamentary research service intergovernmental agreements in the field of energy. Accessed September 2016.
  22. European Union. (2016b). Energy Infrastructure Forum. Accessed September 2016.
  23. Europe Energy. (2002, December 18). Five central European companies consider plan. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  24. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. (2013, June 26). Gas pipeline project Nabucco has failed [Gaspipeline-Projekt: Nabucco ist gescheitert]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Accessed September 2016.
  25. Gas Connections. (2002, June 7). Turkey mulls export of gas surplus to Austria. (deal between Botas and OMV), (Brief Article). Gas Connections, 8.Google Scholar
  26. Gas Infrastructure Europe. (2015). GSE Storage Map. Accessed April 2016.
  27. Goldthau, A., & Sitter, N. (2015). A Liberal actor in a realist world: The European union regulatory state and the global political economy of energy. OUP Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Iago, D. (2011b). Infrastructure: EP Rapporteur Favours innovative infrastructure financing. Europolitics Energy.Google Scholar
  29. Iranian Gas. (2009). Nabucco gas pipeline project. Accessed April 2016.
  30. Kopp, S.-D. (2015). Politics, markets and EU Gas supply security: Case studies of the UK and Germany. Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Kugyela, T. (2012). Energy Council: Member states want final say in in-frastructure investment decisions. Europolitics Energy.Google Scholar
  32. Maltby, T. (2013). European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism. Energy Policy, 55, 435–444. Scholar
  33. MTI EcoNews. (2004, March 12). Nabucco gas pipeline planning company founded. MTI—EcoNews.Google Scholar
  34. Natural Gas Europe. (2015b). Analysis: Trans-Caspian Pipeline implementation process. Accessed April 2016.
  35. Natural Gas Europe. (2015a). Dutch council of State to decide on Groningen within two weeks. Accessed September 2016.
  36. Proedrou, F. (2012). EU Energy security in the gas sector. Ashgate.Google Scholar
  37. Rettman, A. (2016). Eastern EU leaders to warn Juncker on Nord stream II. Accessed April 2016.
  38. Sartori, N. (2013). Energy and politics: Behind the scenes of Nabucco-TAP Competition. Accessed September 2016.
  39. Smith Stegen, K., & Palovic, M. (2014). Decision-making for supplying energy projects: A four-dimensional model. Energy Conversion and Management, 86, 644–652. Scholar
  40. The Group of Personal Representatives of the Heads of State or Government. (1995). Trans-European networks. Accessed April 2016.
  41. VanTartwijk, M., & Kent, S. (2015, June 23). Dutch government to cut Groningen gas-field output. Wall Street Journal. Accessed September 2016.
  42. Vinois, J.-A. (2009). The January 2009 gas dispute and recent developments: The role of the gas coordination group. Accessed April 2016.
  43. Agence Europe. (2003). (EU) EU/ENERGY - Not very far reaching agenda for Monday’s Energy Council. Agence Europe.Google Scholar
  44. Agence Europe. (2008). European Commission proposes ambitious action plan for energy security and solidarity. Agence Europe.Google Scholar
  45. Agence Europe. (2010a). Parliament Approves New EU Plan to prevent gas crisis. Agence Europe.Google Scholar
  46. Europe Energy. (1993b). Trans-European networks: Energy projects from White paper on growth. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  47. Europe Energy. (1994a). Trans-European Networks: Tight schedule for putting white paper to work. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  48. Europe Energy. (1994b). Trans-European Networks: Member States agree on final list of energy projects. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  49. Europe Energy. (1996). Trans-European networks: EIB has lent ECU 1.8 billion for energy TENs since 1993. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  50. Europe Energy. (1997). Energy Cooperation: Promoting the interconnection of networks with third countries. Europe Energy.Google Scholar
  51. European Commission. (1999). Information from the commission - Withdrawal of commission proposals which are no longer topical. Accessed September 2016.
  52. European Commission. (2009). Commission Staff Working Document Accompanying the document to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Directive 2004/67/EC The January 2009 Gas Supply Disruption to the EU an Assessment (SEC(2009)977). Accessed September 2016.
  53. European Report. (1999a). EU/Baltic Sea states - Joint commitment to pursuing energy integration. European Report.Google Scholar
  54. European Report. (1999b). Northern Dimension - EU strategy stumbles as member states snub Russia. European Report.Google Scholar
  55. INOGATE. (2016). INOGATE. Accessed September 2016.
  56. Agence Europe. (2009a). EP/ENERGY: Parliament makes no compromise over energy security. Agence Europe.Google Scholar
  57. Agence Europe. (2009f). Andris Piebalgs does not rule out new gas crisis. Agence Europe.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elina Brutschin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International RelationsWebster Vienna Private UniversityViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations