Advertisement

Language Policies and Practices in Education

Chapter
  • 882 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter presents diachronic and synchronic perspectives on the use of English as a teaching medium in Hong Kong’s education system, particularly at secondary and tertiary levels. The chapter commences by providing an overview of the main areas of change and continuity in medium-of-instruction policy/practice in recent decades. It then moves on to explore the rise of English-medium secondary education in the late colonial period and the HKSAR government’s promotion and subsequent fine-tuning of a controversial mother-tongue policy. The chapter concludes by examining institutional language policy and in-class and out-of-class language practices in the city’s English-medium universities.

Keywords

Education policy English-medium instruction Language in education Medium of instruction Mother-tongue education 

References

Primary Sources

  1. Board of Education. (1973). Report of the Board of Education on the proposed expansion of secondary education over the next decade. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  2. Burney, E. (1935). Report on education in Hong Kong. London: Crown Agents.Google Scholar
  3. Committee on Education. (1902, April 11). Report of the Committee on Education. Hong Kong Government Gazette, p. 491–518.Google Scholar
  4. Committee on Higher Education. (1952). Report of the Committee on Higher Education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  5. Education Bureau. (2010). Enriching our language environment, realising our vision. Retrieved from http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/primary-secondary/applicable-to-secondary/moi/background/policy-for-secondary-schools/leaflet-eng.pdf
  6. Education Commission. (1882). Report of the Education Commission. Hong Kong: Noronha and Co.Google Scholar
  7. Education Commission. (1963). Report of the Commission on Education. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  8. Education Commission. (1984). Report No. 1. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  9. Education Commission. (1990). Report No. 4. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  10. Education Commission. (2000). Learning for life, learning through life: Reform proposals for the education system in Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.e-c.edu.hk/eng/reform/annex/Edu-reform-eng.pdf
  11. Education Department. (1947). Annual report (1946–7). Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  12. Education Department. (1997). Medium of instruction guidance for secondary schools. Hong Kong: Printing Department.Google Scholar
  13. Hon, M. S. M., & Delfino, B. (1998, March 15). Warning against language mixture. Sunday Morning Post, p. 2.Google Scholar
  14. Hong Kong Government. (1853). Report of the Education Committee. Hong Kong Blue Book, p. 208.Google Scholar
  15. Hong Kong Government. (1878, March 9). Government education, Hong Kong. Hong Kong Government Gazette, p. 90.Google Scholar
  16. Hong Kong Government. (1898, March 19). Report on Queen’s College. Hong Kong Government Gazette, pp. 253–257.Google Scholar
  17. Hong Kong Government. (1974b). Secondary education in Hong Kong in the next decade. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  18. Legge, J. (1860). Minute to Board of Education. Hong Kong Blue Book, p. 222.Google Scholar
  19. Legislative Council. (1997). Official record of proceedings, Wednesday 7 May 1997. Hansard. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr96-97/english/lc_sitg/general/yr9697.htm
  20. Llewellyn, J. (1982). A perspective on education in Hong Kong: Report by a visiting panel. Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  21. Robinson, W. (1893). Dispatch to Colonial Office. Colonial Office Original Correspondence, Series 129/260, pp. 47–157.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Carless, D., & Harfitt, G. (2013). Innovation in secondary education: A case of curriculum reform in Hong Kong. In K. Hyland & L. L. C. Wong (Eds.), Innovation and change in English language education (pp. 172–185). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Chan, J. Y. H. (2013). A week in the life of a ‘finely-tuned’ secondary school in Hong Kong. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 34, 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan, J. Y. H. (2014). Fine-tuning language policy in Hong Kong education: Stakeholders’ perceptions, practices and challenges. Language and Education, 28, 459–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi, P. K. (2003). ‘The best students will learn English’: Ultra-utilitarianism and linguistic imperialism in education in post-1997 Hong Kong. Journal of Education Policy, 18, 673–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi, P. K. (2010). ‘Weep for Chinese university’: A case study of English hegemony and academic capitalism in higher education in Hong Kong. Journal of Education Policy, 25, 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cunich, P. (2012). A history of the University of Hong Kong: Volume 1, 1911–1945. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Evans, S. (1999). The medium of instruction in the Engineering stream at tertiary level in Hong Kong. Education Journal, 27, 21–41.Google Scholar
  8. Evans, S. (2002). The medium of instruction in Hong Kong: Policy and practice in the new English and Chinese streams. Research Papers in Education, 17, 97–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans, S. (2006a). Language policy in British colonial education: Evidence from nineteenth-century Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 38, 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans, S. (2008c). Disputes and deliberations over language policy: The case of early colonial Hong Kong. Language Policy, 7, 47–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, S. (2008d). Classroom language use in Hong Kong’s reformed English-medium stream. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29, 483–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, S. (2009b). The medium of instruction in Hong Kong revisited: Policy and practice in the reformed Chinese and English streams. Research Papers in Education, 24, 287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans, S. (2011). Hong Kong English: The growing pains of a new variety. Asian Englishes, 14, 22–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans, S. (2013a). The long march to biliteracy and trilingualism: Language policy in Hong Kong education since the handover. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 302–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans, S., & Green, C. (2007). Why EAP is necessary: A survey of Hong Kong tertiary students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, R. (1989). The worst English in the world? University of Hong Kong. Supplement to the Gazette, 36, 37–46.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, R. K. (1997). The Hong Kong education system: Late immersion under stress. In R. K. Johnson & M. Swain (Eds.), Immersion education: International perspectives (pp. 171–189). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson, R. K., & Lee, P. (1987). Modes of instruction: Teaching strategies and student responses. In R. Lord & H. Cheng (Eds.), Language education in Hong Kong (pp. 99–121). Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kamwangamalu, N. M. (2013). Effects of policy on English-medium instruction in Africa. World Englishes, 32, 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kirkpatrick, A. (2011). English as a medium of instruction in Asian education (from primary to tertiary): Implications for local languages and local scholarship. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kvan, E. (1969). Problems of bilingual milieu in Hong Kong: Strain of the two-language system. In I. Jarvie & J. Agassi (Eds.), Hong Kong: A society in transition (pp. 327–343). London: Routledge and Paul.Google Scholar
  22. Li, D. C. S., Lin, A. M. Y., & Tsang, W. K. (Eds.). (2000). Language and education in postcolonial Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  23. Li, N., Leung, D. Y. P., & Kember, D. (2001). Medium of instruction in Hong Kong universities: The mis-match between espoused theory and theory in use. Higher Education Policy, 14, 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lin, L. H. F., & Morrison, B. (2010). The impact of the medium of instruction in Hong Kong secondary schools on tertiary students’ vocabulary. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9, 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Littlewood, W., & Liu, N. F. (1996). Hong Kong students and their English. Hong Kong: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Lo, Y. Y., & Lo, E. S. C. (2014). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of English-medium education in Hong Kong. Review of Educational Research, 84, 47–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lo, Y. Y., & Murphy, V. A. (2010). Vocabulary knowledge and growth in immersion and regular language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. Language and Education, 24, 215–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lord, R. (1974). English – How serious a problem for students in Hong Kong? The English Bulletin, 6, 1–10.Google Scholar
  29. Lord, R., & Cheng, H. (Eds.). (1987). Language education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Luke, K. K. (Ed.). (1992). Into the 21st century: Issues of language in education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  31. Pennington, M. C. (Ed.). (1998). Language in Hong Kong at century’s end. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Poon, A. Y. K. (2010). Language use, and language policy and planning in Hong Kong. Current Issues in Language Planning, 11, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sweeting, A. (1993). A phoenix transformed: The reconstruction of education in post-war Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Tsang, W.K. (2009). The effect of medium-of-instruction policy on educational advancement in HKSAR society. Public Policy Digest, July 2009. Retrieved from http://www.ugc.edu.hk/rgc/ppd1/eng/05.htm
  35. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1953). The use of vernacular languages in education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  36. Wächter, B., & Maiworm, F. (Eds.). (2014). English-taught programmes in European higher education: The state of play in 2014. Bonn: Lemmens Medien GmbH.Google Scholar
  37. Walters, S., & Balla, J. (1998). Medium of instruction: Policy and reality at one Hong Kong tertiary institution. In M. Pennington (Ed.), Language in Hong Kong at century’s end (pp. 365–389). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Whitehead, C. (1995). The medium of instruction in British colonial education: A case of cultural imperialism or enlightened paternalism? History of Education, 24, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yeung, H. W. Y. (2002). Bookworms, dandies, and activists: Student life at HKU in the 1920s and 1930s. In K. C. Chan Lau & P. Cunich (Eds.), An impossible dream: Hong Kong University from foundation to re-establishment, 1910–1950 (pp. 139–161). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations