European Higher Education Policies

  • Cristina Sin
  • Amélia Veiga
  • Alberto Amaral
Part of the Issues in Higher Education book series (IHIGHER)


This chapter considers the main policy initiatives that have shaped European higher education directly or indirectly. It offers a broad picture of the higher education policy context in which the Bologna Process has unfolded, the place of the Bologna reforms within it and its relationship with this broader policy context. It considers the expanding remit of the European Union in the area of higher education, despite the principle of subsidiarity, and its recourse to two main instruments: legal, through the interference of the European Court of Justice; and discursive, through the European Commission’s communications as persuasion instruments and agenda setters. It then introduces the Bologna Process as a unique development, born under the initiative of national governments. But despite initial independence of the European Commission, Bologna has become increasingly attached to the Commission’s ambitions of European integration, as an instrument to fulfil the objectives of the Lisbon strategy.


High Education Member State European Commission High Education System High Education Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Sin
    • 1
  • Amélia Veiga
    • 1
  • Alberto Amaral
    • 1
  1. 1.CIPESMatosinhosPortugal

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