Bologna Implementation and Its Objectives: Final Analysis in a Comparative Perspective

  • Cristina Sin
  • Amélia Veiga
  • Alberto Amaral
Part of the Issues in Higher Education book series (IHIGHER)


This chapter brings together the insights gained after analysing the Bologna Process against a complex background of European policies and after looking into the effects of the Bologna Process on Portuguese higher education. How far has higher education in Portugal moved towards the political ambitions entertained at the European level regarding employability, mobility and attractiveness of European higher education? Portugal is used here as a conjunctural diagnostic instrument. The study’s most important findings are compared with literature about other European countries to determine how far the Portuguese experience mirrors issues elsewhere. We argue that policy success is not only dependent on political will or institutional endeavour, but the socioeconomic context plays a considerable role, either facilitating or hindering the pursuit of reforms. If we ignore it, we run the risk of misinterpreting the outcomes of policy and the reasons behind it, as well as misplacing the blame for underachievement.


High Education Labour Market High Education System Lisbon Strategy European High Education Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Sin
    • 1
  • Amélia Veiga
    • 1
  • Alberto Amaral
    • 1
  1. 1.CIPESMatosinhosPortugal

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