Advertisement

Racisms in the Southern Caucasus: Multiple Configurations

  • Nikolay Zakharov
  • Ian Law
Chapter
  • 217 Downloads
Part of the Mapping Global Racisms book series (MGR)

Abstract

Contemporary formations of race and racism across the Southern Caucasus region are intimately connected with racialised histories, the legacy of Ottoman, Turkish and Soviet political projects and making of three new racial states: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan which came into being in the post-Soviet era. It is in the interface between racial Europeanisation and the resurrection of both Russian racialised modernity and local racial nationalisms that the specificities of racisms in the Southern Caucasus region can be found here at this spatial intersection between Eastern Europe, Russia and Western Asia. The Soviet experience of domination, the knowledge regime of racial science and global circulation of dominant forms of racial discourse, together with multiple configurations of ethnoracial differentiation and division have all influenced these outcomes.

Keywords

Jewish Community Physical Anthropology Hate Speech Political Project Armenian State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdushelishvili, Malkhaz. 1968. Anthropology of the ancient and modern populations of the Caucasus. In Contributions to the physical anthropology of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Cambridge: Russian Translation Series, Mass: The Peabody Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  2. Abdushelishvili, Malkhaz. 1979. Central problems in ethnic anthropology in Southwest Asia in the light of the latest research. In Physiological and morphological adaptation and evolution, ed. William Stini. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Agayez, Rasim. 2012. Turkey-Armenia protocols have caused split in Armenia. 12 October. http://www.today.az/view.php?id=56460.
  4. Anti-Defamation League. 2014. Global 100. http://global100.adl.org/about.
  5. Astourian, Stephan H. 1999. Modern Turkish identity and the Armenian genocide, from prejudice to racist nationalism. In Remembrance and denial, the case of the Armenian genocide, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Aydıngün, Aysegül. 2013. The ethnification and nationalisation of religion in the post-Soviet Georgian nation-state building process: A source of discrimination and minority rights violations? International Journal of Human Rights 17(7–8): 810–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakalian, Anny P. 1994. Armenian-Americans: From being to feeling Armenian. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Baum, Bruce. 2006. The rise and fall of the caucasian race: A political history of racial identity. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Binus, Joshua. 2005. Tatus O. Cartozian with his daughters. Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/historical_records/dspDocument.cfm?doc_ID=c5f74925-d75d-54f1-e441ea279f7a9402.
  10. Bitadze, Liana. 2015. Istoriko-antropologicheskie svedeniya. In Gruziny, ed. L. Beriashvili, L. Melikashvili, and L. Solov’eva. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  11. Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich. 1795. On the natural variety of mankind. English translation by Thomas Bendyshe. 1865, The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  12. Buniatyan, Gayanne. 2006. How does Armenia educate its public administrators in ethnic diversity? Yerevan: Yerevan State University, Armenia, Working Paper.Google Scholar
  13. Chedia, Beka. 2014. Georgian nationalism today, facing the challenges of the new millennium. Stockholm: CA&CC Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chkhartishvili, Mariam, and Ivane Javakhishvili. 2013. Georgian nationalism and the idea of the Georgian nation. Codrul Cosminulu XIX(2): 189–206.Google Scholar
  15. Darieva, Tsypylma. 2011. Rethinking homecoming: Diasporic cosmopolitanism in post-Soviet Armenia. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34(3): 490–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dobbins, Michael, and Mariam Parsadanishvili. 2013. Statehood religion and strategic Europeanization in the Southern Caucasus. Euxeinos, Governance and Culture in the Black Sea Region 9: 3–4.Google Scholar
  17. ECMI (European Centre for Minority Issues). 2011. Minority issues mainstreaming in the Southern Caucasus. Tbilisi: ECMI.Google Scholar
  18. ECRI (European Commission on Racism and Intolerance). 2010a. Report on Georgia. Brussels: ECRI.Google Scholar
  19. ECRI (European Commission on Racism and Intolerance). 2010b. Report on Estonia. Brussels: ECRI.Google Scholar
  20. ECRI (European Commission on Racism and Intolerance). 2011a. Report on Armenia. Brussels: ECRI.Google Scholar
  21. ECRI (European Commission on Racism and Intolerance). 2011b. Report on Lithuania. Brussels: ECRI.Google Scholar
  22. ECRI (European Commission on Racism and Intolerance). 2011c. Report on Azerbaijan. Brussels: ECRI.Google Scholar
  23. Geddie, John. 1885. The Russian empire, its rise and progress. Edinburgh: T. Nelson and Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Goldenberg, Susan. 1994. Pride of small nations, the Caucasus and post-Soviet disorder. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  25. Goldenberg, David. 2003. The curse of ham: Race and slavery in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Haji-Petros, Vahan H. 2001. Defeating genocide: Analysis of ethnic conflicts in Nagorno Karabakh and Kosovo. http://www.cilicia.com/DGindex.htm.
  27. Hartley, Charles, G. Bike Yazicioğlu, and Adam T. Smith (eds.). 2012. The archaeology of power and politics in Eurasia, regimes and revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hovannisian, Richard G. 1999. Introduction: The Armenian genocide. In Remembrance and denial, the case of the Armenian genocide, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Iskandaryan, Alexander. 2011. The South Caucasus: Becoming a region or trying to be one. In Identities, ideologies and institutions, a decade of insight into the Caucasus, ed. A. Iskandaryan. Yerevan: Caucasus Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Janiashvili, George, Nino Gvedashvili, David Chikashua, and Irma Mamasakhlisi. 2003. People without rights, Roma rights in Georgia. Tbilisi: HRIDC.Google Scholar
  31. Jones, Stephen, and Robert Parsons. 1996. Georgia and the Georgians. In The nationalities question in the post-Soviet states, ed. Graham Smith. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  32. Kaiser, Hilmar. 1998. Imperialism, racism and development theories, the construction of a dominant paradigm on Ottoman Armenians. Ann Arbour: Gomidas Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Kaiser, Hilmar. 1999. The Baghdad railway and the Armenian genocide, 1915–1916. In Remembrance and denial, the case of the Armenian genocide, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Khaindrava, Ivlian. 2001. Moving in several directions at once: Religion in Georgia in the 21st century. In Identities, ideologies and institutions, a decade of insight into the Caucasus, ed. A. Iskandaryan. Yerevan: Caucasus Institute.Google Scholar
  35. Khudaverdyan, Anahit Yu. 2012. Armenia in the Eurasian ethnic context of late classical antiquity: Craniometric evidence. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 40(3): 138–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khutsishvili, Taka and Ana Sheshaberidze. 2010. “I Am Afraid of Chinese People!” “Negros Have Attacked Us?!” – Racism problem in Georgia http://www.humanrights.ge/index.php?a=main&pid=8139&lang=eng. 19 March.
  37. Law, Ian. 2012. Red racisms, racism in communist and post-communist contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  38. Law, Ian, Anna Jacobs, Nisreen Kaj, Simona Pagano, and Bozena Sojka-Koirala. 2014. Mediterranean racisms, connections and complexities in the Mediterranean region. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  39. Macfarlane, S. Neil. 1997. Democratisation, nationalism and regional security in the Southern Caucasus. Government and Opposition 39(3): 399–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mahler, Claudia, Anja Mihr, and Reeta Toivanen. 2005. Human rights, minorities and human rights education. In Armenia: A human rights perspective for peace and democracy, ed. A. Mihr, A. Mkrtichyan, C. Mahler, and R. Toivanen. Potsdam: University of Potsdam.Google Scholar
  41. Marashlian, Levon. 1999. Finishing the genocide, cleansing Turkey of Armenian survivors, 1920–1923. In Remembrance and denial, the case of the Armenian genocide, ed. Richard Hovannisian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Marshall, Maureen. 2014. Becoming bioarcheology? Traditions of physical anthropology and archaeology in Armenia. In Archaeological human remains, global perspectives, ed. B. O’Donnabhain and M.C. Lozada. New York: Springers Briefs in Archaeology.Google Scholar
  43. Marshall, Maureen, and Ruzan Mkrtchyan. 2011. Armenia/Hayastan, the Routledge handbook of archaeological human remains and legislation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Marushiakova, Elena and Vesselin Popov. 2014. The Gypsies (Dom – Lom – Rom) in Georgia. Proceedings of annual meeting of the gypsy lore society and conference on Romani studies. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BwFvqsBgQJK1UHpZWVNXWlFRVks0MXZIZUpMLUthdnZuMXRN/edit.
  45. Matousian, Leo. 2006. Armenian arayans forum, http://www.armenianaryans.com/AC/archive/index.php5?t-5.html).
  46. Matsaberidze, David. 2014. The role of civic nationalism in transformation of the internal ethnic politics of post-Soviet Georgia. Flensburg: ECMI.Google Scholar
  47. Meiners, Christoph. 1785. Grundriss der Gerschichte der Menschheit. LemgoGoogle Scholar
  48. Minasyan, Sergey. 2007. From political rallies to conventions, political and legal aspects of protecting the rights of the Armenian ethnic minority in Georgia as exemplified by the Samtskhe-Javakheti region. Yerevan: Caucasus Media Institute.Google Scholar
  49. Peinhopf, Andrea. 2014. Ethnic minority women in Georgia, facing a double burden? Flensburg: ECMI.Google Scholar
  50. Prasad, Conor. 2012. Georgia’s Muslim community, a self-fulfilling prophecy. Flensburg: ECMI.Google Scholar
  51. Sahakyan, M. 2001. Framework convention in the realization of the state authorities of Armenia. The role of the state in protection of the rights of national minorities. Conference Materials. Sevan, 29–31 August.Google Scholar
  52. Sarafian, Ara. 1999. The archival trail, authentication of the treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire, 1915–16. In Remembrance and denial, the case of the Armenian genocide, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Saroyan, Mark. 1996. Beyond the nation-state: Culture and ethnic politics in Soviet Transcaucasia. In Transcaucasia, nationalism, and social change: Essays in the history of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, ed. Ronald G. Suny. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  54. Shnirelman, V. 2012a. Russkoe rodnoverie. Neoyazychestvo i natsionalizm v sovremennoy Rossii. Moscow: BBI.Google Scholar
  55. Shnirelman, Victor. 2012b. Archaeology and the national idea in Eurasia. In The archeaology of power and politics in Eurasia, ed. Charles Hartley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Sonyel, Salahi Ramadan. 1987. The Ottoman Armenians: Victims of great power diplomacy. London: K. Rustem and Brother.Google Scholar
  57. Sordia, G. 2009. A way out? Initial steps towards addressing Romani issues in Georgia. Flensburg: ECMI.Google Scholar
  58. Suny, Ronald G. 1993. Looking towards Ararat, Armenia in modern history. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Suvariani, Nona. 2008. Week of antiracism in Georgia. http://www.humanrights.ge/index.php?a=main&pid=7060&lang=eng.
  60. Swietochowski, Tadeusz. 2011. Islam and national identity in the Borderland: The case of Azerbaijan. In Identities, ideologies and institutions, 2001–2011 a decade on insight into the Caucasus, ed. Alexander Iskandaryan. Yerevan: Caucasus Institute.Google Scholar
  61. Szakonyi, D. 2008. No way out: An assessment of the Romani community in Georgia. Flensburg: ECMI.Google Scholar
  62. Tishkov, Valery. 1997. Ethnicity, nationalism and conflict in and after the Soviet Union, the mind aflame. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Toynbee, Arnold J. 1915. Armenian atrocities: The murder of a nation, with a speech delivered by Lord Bryce in the house of lords. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  64. Toynbee, Arnold J, ed. 1916a. Key to names and persons and places withheld from publication in the original edition of ‘The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire, 1915–1916’. Miscellaneous no. 31. London.Google Scholar
  65. Toynbee, Arnold J, ed. 1916b. The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire, 1915–1916. London: Sir Joseph Causton and Sons.Google Scholar
  66. Velichko, Vasili L. 2007. Caucasus: Russian affairs and intertribal problems. Baku: Baa Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Yeck, Connor. 2014. Armenian nationalism, emergent political organizations and revolutionary activity surrounding the First World War. Michigan State Journal of History 6: 1–26.Google Scholar
  68. Zakharov, Nikolay. 2015. Race and racism in Russia. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ziemer, Ulrike. 2011. Minority youth, everyday racism and public spaces in contemporary Russia. European Journal of Cultural Studies 14(2): 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolay Zakharov
    • 1
  • Ian Law
    • 2
  1. 1.UppsalaSweden
  2. 2.LeedsUK

Personalised recommendations