Advertisement

From Angry Youth to Anxious Parents: The Mediated Politics of Everyday Life

  • Bingchun Meng
Chapter
Part of the China in Transformation book series (CIT)

Abstract

This chapter starts off by synthesizing and critiquing the status quo of research about Chinese internet. I present three case studies on the internet-mediated politics, around the themes of nationalism, gender and class, to challenge the dominant analytical framework. They unsettle a series of entrenched binary thinking, such as state vs. market, state vs. society, censorship vs. freedom, centralized control vs. dispersed network, deliberation vs. emotion. The three cases also illustrate the dialectic process of mediation, in the sense of media discourse being embedded in social and political context while also shaping subjectivity and practices.

References

  1. Abkowitz, A. (2017, January 30). Zuckerberg’s Beijing blues (Wall Street Journal). The Australian. Retrieved from http://at.theaustralian.com.au/link/524fc245c57717a35418615c2fe56b5c?domain=theaustralian.com.au
  2. Althusser, L. (2008). On ideology. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Anagnost, A. (2004). The corporeal politics of quality (Suzhi). Public Culture, 16(2), 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banet-Weiser, S. (2012). Authentic TM: The politics of ambivalence in a brand culture (Critical cultural communication). New York and London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barreto, E. (2014, September 22). Alibaba IPO ranks as world’s biggest after additional shares sold. Reuters. Retrieved from http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-alibaba-ipo-value-idUKKCN0HH0A620140922
  6. Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the demos: Neoliberalism’s stealth revolution. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bullock, N., & Noble, J. (2014, September 22). Alibaba IPO hits record $25bn. Financial Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017, from https://www.ft.com/content/0f97cc70-4208-11e4-a7b3-00144feabdc0
  8. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Calhoun, C. (1992). Introduction: Habermas and the public sphere. In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 1–48). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, W. (2014). Taking stock, moving forward: The Internet, social networks and civic engagement in Chinese societies. Information, Communication & Society, 17(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.857425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, W. (2016). The Internet, social networks and civic engagement in Chinese societies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, W., & Reese, S. D. (2015). Networked China: Global dynamics of digital media and civic engagement: New agendas in communication. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Clinton, B. (2000, March 9). Full text of Clinton’s speech on China Trade Bill. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://partners.nytimes.com/library/world/asia/030900clinton-china-text.html?mcubz=2
  14. CNNIC. (2017). Statistical report on Internet development in China. CNNIC Survey Report. Retrieved June 10, 2017 from https://cnnic.com.cn/IDR/ReportDownloads/201706/P020170608523740585924.pdf
  15. Couldry, N. (2003). Media rituals: A critical approach. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Cover, R. (2012). Performing and undoing identity online: Social networking, identity theories and the incompatibility of online profiles and friendship regimes. Convergence, 18(2), 177–193. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856511433684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crabb, M. W. (2010). Governing the middle-class family in urban China: Educational reform and questions of choice. Economy and Society, 39(3), 385–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/03085147.2010.486216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahlberg, L. (2005). The Habermasian public sphere: Taking difference seriously? Theory and Society, 34(2), 111–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-005-0155-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dealbook. (2014, September 18). Alibaba raises $21.8 billion in Initial Public Offering. Retrieved from https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/09/18/alibaba-raises-21-8-billion-in-initial-public-offering/
  20. Ehrenreich, B. (1989). Fear of falling: The inner life of the middle class. New York: HarperPerennial.Google Scholar
  21. Esarey, A., & Xiao, Q. (2008). Political expression in the Chinese blogsphere: Below the radar. Asian Survey, 48(5), 752–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Esarey, A., & Xiao, Q. (2011). Digital communication and political change in China. International Journal of Communication, 5, 298–319.Google Scholar
  23. Fong, V. L. (2006). Only hope: Coming of age under China’s one-child policy. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 109–142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gill, R. (2007). Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2), 147–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549407075898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Global Times. (2016, January 21). No need to exaggerate the negative impact of Di Ba Expedition on cross-strait relationship (bubi kuazhang diba chuzheng de liangan fuxiaoguo). Global Times. Retrieved from http://opinion.huanqiu.com/editorial/2016-01/8425254.html
  27. Goldman Sachs. (2015). The rise of China’s new consumer class. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/macroeconomic-insights/growth-of-china/chinese-consumer/
  28. Goodman, D. S. G. (2014). Class in contemporary China. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  29. Guo, X., & Yang, S. (2016). The memetic communication and consensus mobilization in the cyber nationalist movement. Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication, 38(11), 54–74.Google Scholar
  30. Habermas, J. (1989). The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. (T. Burger & F. Lawrence, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  31. Han, R. (2015). Defending the authoritarian regime online: China’s “voluntary fifty-cent army”. The China Quarterly, 224(4), 1006–1025. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741015001216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harwit, E. (2016). WeChat: Social and political development of China’s dominant messaging app. Chinese Journal of Communication, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2016.1213757
  33. Helmond, A. (2015). The platformization of the web: Making web data platform ready. Social Media + Society, 1(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115603080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Herold, D. K., & Marolt, P. (2011). Online society in China: Creating, celebrating, and instrumentalising the online carnival. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Hong, Y. (2017). Networking China: The digital transformation of the Chinese economy. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang, H. (2014). Social media generation in urban China: A study of social media use and addiction among adolescents. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huang, M. (2016, January 21). Chinese netizens flood Tsai Ing-Wen’s Facebook page with anti-Taiwan independence posts. Retrieved from https://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2016/01/21/chinese-netizens-flood-tsai-ing-wens-facebook-page-with-anti-taiwan-independence-posts/
  38. Hughes, C. (2000, September 21). Net unease: Beijing rides a nationalist cyber-tiger. Asian Wall Street Journal, p. 8.Google Scholar
  39. Hughes, C. (2006). Chinese nationalism in the global era. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Hung, C.-F. (2013). Citizen journalism and cyberactivism in China’s anti-PX plant in Xiamen, 2007–2009. China: An International Journal, 11(1), 40–54.Google Scholar
  41. ICEF Monitor. (2016, April 13). Growing Chinese middle class projected to spend heavily on education through 2030. ICEF Monitor. Retrieved from http://monitor.icef.com/2016/04/growing-chinese-middle-class-projected-spend-heavily-education-2030/
  42. Ifeng Tech. (2014, November 11). Ali Jiaoyi’e Po 462 Yi Chao Qunian, Ma Yun: GanxieZhongguoFunv (Trade volume of Alibaba exceeds last year’s 46.2 billion. Jack Ma: Thanks Chinese women). Retrieved from http://tech.ifeng.com/a/20141111/40864712_0.shtml
  43. Isaac, M. (2016, November 22). Facebook said to create censorship tool to get back into China. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/22/technology/facebook-censorship-tool-china.html
  44. Jiang, M. (2014). The business and politics of search engines: A comparative study of Baidu and Google’s search results of Internet events from China. New Media & Society, 16(2), 212–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444813481196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jiang, M., & Okamoto, K. (2014). National identity, ideological apparatus, or panopticon? A case study of the Chinese national search engine Jike. Policy & Internet, 6(1), 89–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/1944-2866.POI353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jiang, Y. (2012). Cyber-nationalism in China: Challenging Western media portrayals of Internet censorship in China. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kang, C. (2010, January 22). Hillary Clinton calls for web freedom, demands China investigate Google attack. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/21/AR2010012101699.html
  48. King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2013). How censorship in China allows government criticism but silences collective expression. American Political Science Review, 107(2), 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055413000014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kipnis, A. (2006). Suzhi: A keyword approach. The China Quarterly, 186, 295–313. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741006000166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kipnis, A. (2007). Neoliberalism reified: Suzhi discourse and tropes of neoliberalism in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 13(2), 383–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2007.00432.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lagerkvist, J. (2010). After the Internet, before democracy: Competing norms in Chinese media and society. Berne and New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  52. Lee, C.-K. (2007). Against the law: Labour protests in China’s rustbelt and sunbelt. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lei, Y.-W. (2011). The political consequences of the rise of the Internet: Political beliefs and practices of Chinese netizens. Political Communication, 28(3), 291–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2011.572449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leibold, J. (2010). More than a category: Han supremacism on the Chinese Internet. The China Quarterly, 203, 539–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leibold, J. (2011). Blogging alone: China, the Internet, and the democratic illusion? The Journal of Asian Studies, 70(4), 1023–1041. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021911811001550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leibold, J. (2016). Han cybernationalism and state territorialization in the People’s Republic of China. China Information, 30(1), 3–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X16631921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leng, S. (2016, January 21). Taiwan President-Elect Tsai Ing-wen’s Facebook page bombarded with comments attacking any move by island towards independence. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1903627/taiwan-president-elect-tsai-ing-wens-facebook-page
  58. Li, H. (2008). Branding Chinese products: Between nationalism and transnationalism. International Journal of Communication, 2, 1125–1163.Google Scholar
  59. Li, H. (2009). Marketing Japanese products in the context of Chinese nationalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26(5), 435–456. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295030903325339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li, H. (2016). How to understand nationalism in China?: An analysis of “D8 expedition”. Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication, 38(11), 91–113.Google Scholar
  61. Li, J., & Li, X. (2017). Media as a core political resource: The young feminist movements in China. Chinese Journal of Communication, 10(1), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2016.1274265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li, K. (2015, December 31). Premier Li Keqiang and Internet plus. Retrieved from http://english.gov.cn/policies/infographics/2015/12/31/content_281475263938767.htm
  63. Liang, H. (2014). Nvxing Jiang Zhudao Zhongguo Xiaofei Zengzhang (Women will be the main driving force of China’s economy). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://finance.sina.com.cn/zl/china/20141112/110720796494.shtml
  64. Lin, C. (2006). The transformation of Chinese socialism. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Lin, C. (2014). The language of class in China. Socialist Register, 51. Retrieved from http://socialistregister.com/index.php/srv/article/download/22093
  66. Liu, F. (2010). Urban youth in China: Modernity, the Internet and the self. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Liu, M. T., Brock, J. L., Shi, G. C., Chu, R., & Tseng, T. (2013). Perceived benefits, perceived risk, and trust: Influences on consumers’ group buying behaviour. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(2), 225–248. https://doi.org/10.1108/13555851311314031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu, S.-D. (2006). China’s popular nationalism on the Iaanternet. Report on the 2005 anti-Japan network struggles. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 7(1), 144–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649370500463802 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2007). Gradations in digital inclusion: Children, young people and the digital divide. New Media & Society, 9(4), 671–696. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444807080335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. MacKinnon, R. (2009). China’s Censorship 2.0: How companies censor bloggers. First Monday, 14(2). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2378
  71. Mansell, R. (2002). From digital divide to digital entitlements in knowledge societies. Current Sociology, 50(3), 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marcus, G. E. (2002). The sentimental citizen: Emotion in democratic politics. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Marolt, P., & Herold, D. K. (2014). China online: Locating society in online spaces. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. McDonald, T. (2016). Social media in rural China (Vol. 5). London: UCL Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1g69xx3
  75. McRobbie, A. (2007). Top girls? Cultural Studies, 21(4–5), 718–737. https://doi.org/10.1080/09502380701279044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McRobbie, A. (2009). The aftermath of feminism: Gender, culture and social change. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  77. Meng, B. (2010). Moving beyond democratization: A thought piece on China Internet research agenda. International Journal of Communication, 4, 501–508.Google Scholar
  78. Meng, B. (2011). From Steamed Bun to Grass Mud Horse: E Gao as alternative political discourse on the Chinese Internet. Global Media and Communication, 7(1), 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meng, B. (2016). Political scandal at the end of ideology? The mediatized politics of the Bo Xilai case. Media, Culture & Society, 38(6), 811–826. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716635858 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mies, M. (1986). Patriarchy and accumulation on a world scale. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  81. Min, S.-J. (2010). From the digital divide to the democratic divide: Internet skills, political interest, and the second-level digital divide in political Internet use. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7(1), 22–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331680903109402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mouffe, C. (1999). Deliberative democracy or agnostic pluralism? Social Research, 66(3), 746–758.Google Scholar
  83. Mulvey, L. (1975). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3), 6–18. https://doi.org/10.1093/screen/16.3.6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nakamura, L. (2013). Cybertypes: Race, ethnicity, and identity on the Internet. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Orgad, S., & Meng, B. (2017). The maternal in the city: Outdoor advertising representations in Shanghai and London. Communication, Culture & Critique, 10(3), 460–478. https://doi.org/10.1111/cccr.12171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Osnos, E. (2008, July 28). Angry youth. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/07/28/angry-youth
  88. Parker, E. (2016, October 18). Mark Zuckerberg is determined to launch his social network in China, whatever it takes. Technology Review. Retrieved from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602493/mark-zuckerbergs-long-march-to-china/
  89. Pun, N. (2003). Subsumption or consumption? The phantom of consumer revolution in “globalizing” China. Cultural Anthropology, 18(4), 469–492. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.2003.18.4.469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Qiu, J. (2004). China and the Internet: Technologies of freedom in a statist information society. In M. Castells (Ed.), The network society: A global perspective (pp. 99–124). London: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  91. Qiu, J. L. (2009). Working-class network society: Communication technology and the information have-less in urban China. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ringrose, J., & Walkerdine, V. (2008). Regulating the abject. Feminist Media Studies, 8(3), 227–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680770802217279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rocca, J.-L. (2017). The making of the Chinese middle class: Small comfort and great expectations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rofel, L. (2007). Desiring China: Experiments in neoliberalism, sexuality, and public culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosen, S. (2004). The victory of materialism: Aspirations to join China’s urban moneyed classes and the commercialization of education. The China Journal, 51(1), 27–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/3182145
  96. Ruan, L. (2016, August 25). The new face of Chinese nationalism. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/08/25/the-new-face-of-chinese-nationalism/
  97. Schneider, F. (2016). China’s “info-web”: How Beijing governs online political communication about Japan. New Media & Society, 18(11), 2664–2684. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815600379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scotton, J. F., & Hachten, W. (2010). New media for a new China. London: Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sender, K. (2006). Queens for the day: Queer eye for the straight guy and neoliberal project. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 23(2), 131–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharwood, S. (2015, March 9). China reveals “Internet plus” plan to modernise and go cloudy. The Register. Retrieved from https://www.theregister.co.uk/2015/03/09/china_reveals_internet_plus_plan_to_modernise_and_go_cloudy/
  101. Song, G., & Hird, D. (2014). Men and masculinities in contemporary China. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  102. Stevenson, S. (2009). Digital divide: A discursive move away from the real inequities. The Information Society, 25(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240802587539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sui, C. (2016, January 18). Taiwan election: How a penitent pop star may have helped Tsai win. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-35340530
  104. Sun, W. (2010). Mission impossible? Soft power, communication capacity, and the globalization of Chinese media. International Journal of Communication, 4, 19.Google Scholar
  105. Sun, W., & Guo, Y. (2013). Unequal China: The political economy and cultural politics of inequality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Szablewicz, M. (2014). The “losers” of China’s Internet: Memes as “structures of feeling” for disillusioned young netizens. China Information, 28(2), 259–275. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X14531538 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tai, Z. (2006). The Internet in China: Cyberspace and civil society. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  108. Tencent. (2015, January 27). WeChat impact report. Retrieved from http://blog.grata.co/wechat-impact-report/
  109. Tencent, I. (2016, December 29). The 2016 WeChat data report. Retrieved from http://blog.wechat.com/2016/12/29/the-2016-wechat-data-report/
  110. Tsui, L. (2003). The panopticon as the antithesis of a space of freedom: Control and regulation of the Internet in China. China Information: A Journal on Contemporary China Studies, 17(2), 65–82.Google Scholar
  111. Tsui, L. (2007). An inadeuqate metaphor: The Great Firewall and Chinese Internet censorship. Global Dialogue, 9, 60–68. Retrieved from http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=400 Google Scholar
  112. Tyler, I. (2013). Revolting subjects: Social abjection and resistance in neoliberal Britain. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  113. van Dijck, J. (2013). Facebook and the engineering of connectivity: A multi-layered approach to social media platforms. Convergence, 19(2), 141–155. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856512457548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Van Dijk, J., & Hacker, K. (2003). The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon. The Information Society, 19(4), 315–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240309487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. van Zoonen, L. (2004). Imagining the fan democracy. European Journal of Communication, 19(1), 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323104040693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. van Zoonen, L. (2005). Entertaining the citizen: When politics and popular culture converge. Lanthan, MD: Rowmand and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  117. Voci, P. (2010). China on video: Smaller-screen realities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  118. Vrooman, S. S. (2002). The art of invective: Performing identity in cyberspace. New Media & Society, 4(1), 51–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614440222226262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wallis, C. (2013). Technomobility in China: Young migrant women and mobile phones. New York: NYU Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wallis, C. (2014). Gender and China’s online censorship protest culture. Feminist Media Studies, 15(2), 223–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.928645 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang, H. (2012, May 10). The rumour machine: The dismissal of Bo Xilai. London Review of Books, 34(9), 13–14.Google Scholar
  122. Wang, H., Li, S., & Wu, J. (2016). From fandom to “Little Pink”: The construction and mobilization of national identity in the context of new media commercial culture. Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication, 38(11), 33–53.Google Scholar
  123. Wang, J. (1996). High culture fever: Politics, aesthetics, and ideology in Deng’s China. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  124. Wang, J. (2006). The politics of goods: A case study of consumer nationalism and media discourse in contemporary China. Asian Journal of Communication, 16(2), 187–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980600638710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang, X. (2016). Social media in industrial China (Vol. 6, 1st ed.). London: UCL Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1g69xtj Google Scholar
  126. Wang, X. (2016, January 27). Little Pinko, exactly what kind of redness is it? (Xiaofenhong, jiujing shi shenmeyang de hong?). Retrieved from http://www.weibo.com/ttarticle/p/show?id=2309403935713723854644
  127. Wang, Z. (2016). “D8 goes to battle, nothing will grow”: Cyber-nationalism as online emotional games. Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication, 38(11), 75–90.Google Scholar
  128. Weber, I., & Lu, J. (2007). Internet and self-regulation in China: The cultural logic of controlled commodification. Media, Culture & Society, 29(5), 772–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wu, C. (2012). Micro-blog and the speech act of China’s middle class: The 7.23 train accident case. Javnost – The Public, 19(2), 43–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2012.11009084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wu, J. (2016). Home, aesthetic authority and class identity in the shadow of neoliberal modernity. In F. Martin & T. Lewis (Eds.), Lifestyle media in Asia: Consumption, aspiration and identity (pp. 50–66). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  131. Wu, X. (2007). Chinese cyber nationalism: Evolution, characteristics and implications. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  132. Wu, Y. (2014). The Cultural Revolution at the margins: Chinese socialism in crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Xing, G. (2012). Online activism and counter-public spheres. Javnost – The Public, 19(2), 63–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2012.11009085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Xinhua. (2007, March 8). Need to succeed draining children’s energy, parents’ money. Xinhua. Retrieved from http://www.china.org.cn/english/education/202129.htm
  135. Yan, H. (2003). Neoliberal governmentality and neohumanism: Organizing Suzhi/value flow through labor recruitment networks. Cultural Anthropology, 18(4), 493–523. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.2003.18.4.493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yan, Q. (2016, July 22). Patriotic Little Pink, fandom war and the Middle Kingdomism cyborgs (aiguo xiaofenhong, fensi zhanzheng, yu tianchao saiboge). The Initium. Retrieved from https://theinitium.com/article/20160722-opinion-yanqiang-pink-cyborg/
  137. Yang, G. (2003a). The co-evolution of the Internet and civil society in China. Asian Survey, 43(3), 405–422.Google Scholar
  138. Yang, G. (2003b). The Internet and civil society in China: A preliminary assessment. Journal of Contemporary China, 12(36), 453–475.Google Scholar
  139. Yang, G. (2006). Activists beyond virtual borders: Internet-mediated networks and information politics in China. First Monday, 11. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v0i0.1609
  140. Yang, G. (2009). The power of the Internet in China: Citizen activism online. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Yang, G. (2014). The return of ideology and the future of Chinese Internet policy. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31(2), 109–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2014.913803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yang, G. (2016). Heroic fans of nationalism. Chinese Journal of Journalism and Communication, 38(11), 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yang, G., & Jiang, M. (2015). The networked practice of online political satire in China: Between ritual and resistance. International Communication Gazette, 77(3), 215–231. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048514568757 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yang, P., Tang, L., & Wang, X. (2015). Diaosi as infrapolitics: Scatological tropes, identity-making and cultural intimacy on China’s Internet. Media, Culture & Society, 37(2), 197–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443714557980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Young, I. M. (2002). Inclusion and democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Young, M. (1989). Chicken Little in China: Some reflections on women. In A. Dirlik & M. Meisner (Eds.), Marxism and the Chinese experience: Issues of contemporary Chinese socialism. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  147. Zeller, T. (2006, February 15). Internet firms facing questions about censoring online searches in China. New York Times, p. C3.Google Scholar
  148. Zhang, J. (2003). Network convergence and bureaucratic turf wars. In C. Hughes & G. Wacker (Eds.), China and the Internet: Politics of the digital leap forward (pp. 83–101). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  149. Zhang, J. J., & Tsai, W.-H. S. (2015). United we shop! Chinese consumers’ online group buying. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 27(1), 54–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2014.967902 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zhang, M., & Liu, X. (2007, August 3). Anyong Baogao Zhichu: Nvxing Yingxiang Zhongguo Xiaofei Geju (According to a report of Ernst & Young: Women have impact on China’s consumption pattern). Xinhua. Retrieved from http://jjckb.xinhuanet.com/whsh/2007-08/03/content_60588.htm
  151. Zhang, W. (2016). The Internet and new social formation in China: Fandom publics in the making. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  152. Zhang, X., & Shaw, G. (2015). New media, emerging middle class and environmental health movement in China. In H. Kriesi, L. Dong, & D. Kübler (Eds.), Urban mobilizations and new media in contemporary China (pp. 101–116). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  153. Zhang, X., & Zheng, Y. (2009). China’s information and communications technology revolution: Social changes and state responses. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  154. Zhao, H. (2016). Di Ba goes to Facebook: A magical realism expedition of the Decemberists (diba jinjun Facebook: yici mohuan xianshi zhuyi de shieryue dangren chuzheng). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603934561053631216
  155. Zhao, X., & Belk, R. W. (2008). Politicizing consumer culture: Advertising’s appropriation of political ideology in China’s social transition. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 231–244. https://doi.org/10.1086/588747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhao, Y. (2003). Falun Gong, identity, and the struggle for meaning inside and outside China. In J. Curran & N. Couldry (Eds.), Contesting media power: Alternative media in a networked society (pp. 209–224). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  157. Zhao, Y. (2008). Communication in China: Political economy, power and conflict. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  158. Zhao, Y. (2012). The struggle for socialism in China: The Bo Xilai saga and beyond. Monthly Review, 64, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zheng, Y. (2008). Technological empowerment: The internet, state and society in China. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Zhong, X., Wang, Z., & Di, B. (2001). Some of us: Chinese women growing up in the Mao era. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Zhou, X. (2009). The political blogosphere in China: A content analysis of the blogs regarding the dismissal of Shanghai leader Chen Liangyu. New Media & Society, 11(6), 1003–1022. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809336552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zhou, Y. (2005). Informed nationalism: Military websites in Chinese cyberspace. Journal of Contemporary China, 14(44), 543–562. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670560500115481 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zhou, Y. (2007). Privatizing control: Internet cafes in China. In A. Ong & L. Zhang (Eds.), Privatizing China, socialism from afar (pp. 214–229). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bingchun Meng
    • 1
  1. 1.London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations