Advertisement

Conclusion: Reflecting on Theory and Method, Practice and Policy

  • Gina Porter
  • Kate Hampshire
  • Albert Abane
  • Alister Munthali
  • Elsbeth Robson
  • Mac Mashiri
Chapter
Part of the Anthropology, Change, and Development book series (ACD)

Abstract

The concluding chapter reflects on the findings presented throughout the book. Mobilities as social constructs are experienced and imagined very differently, not least according to age, gender and family context. Most significant of all is the issue of gender equality, which permeates the material reality of so many mobilities stories. Attention is given to some of the practical mobility-related interventions which have potential to improve the course of young people’s lives in sub-Saharan Africa: these are not necessarily about improving mobility per se, of course, since in some contexts less, rather than more mobility could be beneficial. The final section of the chapter reflects on the influence of wider in-country policy decisions and practice and the international sphere, not least the issue of mobility targets in the MDGs and SDGs.

Keywords

Young People Gender Equality Road Safety Transport Service School Journey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M., Beegle, K., & Nyamete, A. (1995). The impact of female schooling on fertility and contraceptive use: A study of 14 sub-Saharan countries. LSMS working paper 110, World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Benwell, M. C. (2009). Challenging minority world privilege: Children’s outdoor mobilities in post-apartheid South Africa. Mobilities, 4(1), 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Binnie, J., Edensor, T., Holloway, T., et al. (2007). Mundane mobilities, banal travels [editorial]. Social and Cultural Geography, 8(2), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird, K. (2013). The intergenerational transmission of poverty: An overview. In A. Shepherd & J. Brunt (Eds.), Chronic poverty: Concepts, causes and policy (pp. 60–84). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourdillon, M. (2012). Reflections: Values rights and research. In G. Spittler & M. Bourdillon (Eds.), African children at work (pp. 333–348). Berlin: IAS.Google Scholar
  6. Boyle, M. H., Racine, Y., Georgiades, K., et al. (2006). The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 2242–2254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandra-Mouli, V., Mapella, E., et al. (2013). Standardizing and scaling up quality adolescent friendly health services in Tanzania. BMC Public Health, 13, 579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Lange, N., & Mitchell, C. (2014). Building a future without gender violence: Rural teachers and youth in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, leading community dialogue. Gender and Education, 26(5), 584–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fernando, P., & Porter, G. (Eds.) (2002). Balancing the load: Women, gender and transport. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  10. Geissler, P. W., Meinert, L., Prince, R. J., et al. (2001). Self-treatment by Kenyan and Ugandan school children and the need for school-based education. Health Policy and Planning, 16(4), 362–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hampshire, K., Porter, G., Mashiri, M., et al. (2011). Proposing love on the way to school: Mobility, sexuality and youth transitions in South Africa. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 13(2), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hampshire, K. R., Porter, G., Owusu, S. A., et al. (2015). Informal m-health: How are young people using mobile phones to bridge healthcare gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa? Social Science and Medicine, 142, 90–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huisman, J., & Smits, J. (2009). Effects of household- and district-level factors on primary school enrollment in 30 developing countries. World Development, 37(1), 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal. Gender and Development, 13(1), 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Langevang, T. (2008). Claiming place: The production of young men’s street meeting places in Accra, Ghana. Geografiska Annaler, 90(3), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murray, H. (2014). Fulfilling the promise of school education? Factors shaping education inequalities in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. In M. Bourdillon & J. Boyden (Eds.), Growing up in poverty: Findings from young lives (pp. 181–199). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Pirie, G. (2009). Virtuous mobility: Moralising vs measuring geographical mobility in Africa. Afrika focus, 22(1), 21–35.Google Scholar
  18. Porter, A. (2013). ‘What is constructed can be transformed’: Masculinities in post-conflict societies in Africa. International Peacekeeping, 20(4), 486–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Porter, G. (2011). ‘I think a woman who travels a lot is befriending other men and that’s why she travels’: Mobility constraints and their implications for rural women and girl children in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender. Place and Culture, 18(1), 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Porter, G. (2014). Transport Services and Their Impact on Poverty and Growth in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Recent Research and Future Research Needs. Transport Reviews, 34(1), 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Abane, A., et al. (2012). Child porterage and Africa’s transport gap: Evidence from Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. World Development, 40(10), 2136–2154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Dunn, C., et al. (2013). Health impacts of pedestrian head-loading: A review of the evidence with particular reference to women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 88, 90–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Salazar, N. B., & Smart, A. (2011). Anthropological takes on (im)mobility. Identities: Global studies in culture and power, 18, i–ix.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Salmon, R., & Eckersley, W. (2010). Where there’s no green man: Child road-safety education in Ethiopia. Development in Practice, 20(6), 726–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A, 38, 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. UN. (2015). Zero draft of the outcome document for the UN Summit to adopt the Post-2015 Development Agenda. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/7261Post-2015%20Summit%20-%202%20June%202015.pdf
  27. UNICEF. (2015). Progress for children. Beyond averages: Learning from the MDGs. No. 11, June 2015.Google Scholar
  28. Vergunst, J. (2011). Technology and technique in a useful ethnography of movement. Mobilities, 6(2), 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. World Health Organization (2002). Adolescent friendly health services: An agenda for change. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  30. World Health Organization (2012). Making health services adolescent friendly. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gina Porter
    • 1
  • Kate Hampshire
    • 1
  • Albert Abane
    • 2
  • Alister Munthali
    • 3
  • Elsbeth Robson
    • 4
  • Mac Mashiri
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyDurham UniversityDurhamUK
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Regional PlanningUniversity of Cape CoastCape CoastGhana
  3. 3.Centre for Social ResearchUniversity of MalawiZombaMalawi
  4. 4.Department of Geography, Environment and Earth ScienceUniversity of HullHullUK
  5. 5.Gwarajena Transport Research & DevelopmentPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations