Industrial Structure and Political Outcomes: The Case of the 2016 US Presidential Election

  • Thomas FergusonEmail author
  • Paul Jorgensen
  • Jie Chen


This paper analyzes the US presidential election of 2016, examining the patterns of industrial structure and party competition in both the major party primaries and the general election. It attempts to identify the new, historically specific factors that led to the upheavals, especially the steady growth of a “dual economy” that locks more and more Americans out of the middle class. It draws extensively on a newly assembled, more comprehensive database to identify the specific political forces that coalesced around each candidate, including the various stages of the Trump campaign.



The authors thank Roberto Scazzieri and Ivano Cardinale for their patience and friendly assistance. They are also very grateful to Francis Bator, Walter Dean Burnham, Robert Johnson, William Lazonick, Benjamin Page, Servaas Storm, Roger Trilling, and Peter Temin for many discussions and advice. Edward Kane pointed out a place where details on some statistical tests had inadvertently gone missing. We are further indebted to Page and Trilling for detailed editorial suggestions. Thanks also to the Institute for New Economic Thinking for support of data collection. Earlier versions of the paper were presented at the Institute for New Economic Thinking’s conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, and published as Working Paper No. 66 of the Institute; and a conference organized by the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. It is worth emphasizing that the paper represents the views of the authors and not any of the institutions with which they are affiliated.


  1. Ad Hoc Committee. 2017. An Evaluation of 2016 Election Polls in the U.S. American Association for Opinion Research.Google Scholar
  2. Albright, J. 2016. Left + Right: The Combined Post-#Election News “Ecosystem”. Medium, December 11.Google Scholar
  3. Albright, J. 2017a. Total Reach by Page. Tableau Public, October 5.Google Scholar
  4. Albright, J. 2017b. Who Hacked the Election? Ad Tech Did. Through “Fake News,” Identity Resolution, and Hyper-Personalization. Medium, July 31.Google Scholar
  5. Allcott, H., and M. Gentzkow. 2017. Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives 31: 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, J., and A. Parnes. 2017. Shattered—Inside Hillary Clinton’s Doomed Campaign. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  7. Anne, R. 2017. Sinclair Broadcast Group—The Greatest Threat to Our Democracy Since Fox News. Rantt, September 6.Google Scholar
  8. Assange, J. 2014. When Google Met Wikileaks. New York: OR Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Autor, D., D. Dorn, G. Hanson, and K. Majlesi 2016. Importing Political Polarization? The Electoral Consequences of Rising Trade Exposure. Working Paper No. 22637. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  10. Autor, D., D. Dorn, G. Hanson, and K. Majlesi. 2017. A Note on the Effect of Rising Trade Exposure on the 2016 Election. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. On the web at:
  11. Ballhaus, R., and J. Bykowicz. 2017. Data Firm’s WikiLeaks Outreach Came As It Joined Trump’s Campaign. Wall Street Journal, November 10.Google Scholar
  12. Barajas, M. 2016. “Project Alamo”: Lessons From Inside Trump’s SA-Based Digital Nerve Center. San Antonio Current, October 27.Google Scholar
  13. Bartels, L. 2016. 2016 Was an Ordinary Election, Not a Realignment. Washington Post, November 10.Google Scholar
  14. Behrakis, Y. 2014. German Official Says It Was Wrong to Make Ukraine Pick Between EU and Russia. Reuters, May 14.Google Scholar
  15. Bentele, K., and E. O’Brien. 2013. Jim Crow 2.0? Why States Consider and Adopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies. Perspectives on Politics 11: 1088–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernstein, J. 2017. Alt-White: How the Breitbart Machine Laundered Racist Hate. BuzzFeed, October 5.Google Scholar
  17. Bertrand, N. 2017. Shuttered Facebook Group That Organized Anti-Clinton, Anti-Immigrant Rallies Across Texas Was Linked To Russia. Business Insider, September 13.Google Scholar
  18. Blair, G. 2015. The Trumps. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  19. Block, S. 2017. The Trump Administration Will Always Side with Corporations Over Labor. Truthout, September 17.Google Scholar
  20. Blumenthal, P. 2017. Billionaires, Big Oil Flooded Mitch McConnell’s Super PAC in Campaign’s Final Weeks. Huffington Post, December 8.Google Scholar
  21. Borger, J. 2017. Investigators Explore If Russian Colluded with Pro-Trump Sites During Election. Guardian, July 5.Google Scholar
  22. Boxell, L., M. Gentzkow, and J.M. Schapiro. 2017. Is the Internet Causing Political Polarization? Evidence From Demographics. On the web at:
  23. Brazile, D. 2017. Hacks. New York: Hachette.Google Scholar
  24. Brennan, J. 2017. House Intel Committee Hearing; Brennan on Contact with Russia. CNN Transcripts, May 23.Google Scholar
  25. Brox, B.J., and J.D. Giammo. 2009. Late Deciders in US Presidential Elections. American Review of Politics 30: 333–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bump, P. 2017. “60 Minutes” Profiles the Genius Who Won Trump’s Campagin. Washington Post, October 9.Google Scholar
  27. Burnham, W.D., and T. Ferguson. 2014. Americans Are Sick to Death of Both Parties: Why Our Political System Is in Worse Shape Than We Thought. AlterNet, March 30. On the web at:
  28. Cadwalladr, C. 2017a. The Great British Brexit Robbery: How Our Democracy Was Hijacked. Guardian, May 7.Google Scholar
  29. Cadwalladr, C. 2017b. Robert Mercer: The Big Data Billionaire Waging War on Mainstream Media. Guardian, February 26.Google Scholar
  30. Case, A., and A. Deaton. 2017. Mortality and Morbidity in the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  31. Chozick, A. 2016. Hillary Clinton’s Expectations, and Her Ultimate Campaign Missteps. New York Times, November 9.Google Scholar
  32. Cillufo, A. 2017. Five Facts About Student Debt. Fact Tank. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  33. Clinton, H. 2017. What Happened. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  34. Cohn, N. 2016. A 2016 Review: There’s Reason to Be Skeptical of a Comey Effect. New York Times, May 8, 2017.Google Scholar
  35. Collins, B., G. Resnick, G. Poulsen, and S. Ackerman. 2017. Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 US Cities. Daily Beast, September 20.Google Scholar
  36. Cooper, M. 2016. Overcharged and Underserved. New York: Roosevelt Institute.Google Scholar
  37. Costa, R., J.A. Delreal, and J. Johnson. 2016. Trump Shakes Up Campaign, Demotes Top Adviser. Washington Post, August 17.Google Scholar
  38. Costantini, O. 2015. The Cyclically Adjusted Budget: The History and Exegesis of a Fateful Estimate. Institute for New Economic Thinking Working Paper No. 24. Available on the web at:
  39. Costantini, O. 2017. A Burning Debt: The Influence of Household Debt on Investment, Production, and Growth in the U.S. Conference Paper, Edinburgh, Scotland. Institute for New Economic Thinking.
  40. Crotty, W. (ed.). 2017. Winning the Presidency 2016. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. de Ploeg, C.K. 2017. Ukraine in the Crossfire. Atlanta: Clarity Press.Google Scholar
  42. Desilver, D. 2016. Turnout Was High in the 2016 Primary Season, but Just Short of 2008 Record. Fact Tank. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  43. Dickerson, C. 2017. How Fake News Turned a Small Town Upside Down. New York Times, September 26.Google Scholar
  44. DiJulio, B., A. Kirzinger, B. Wu, and M. Brodie. 2017. Data Note: Americans’ Challenges With Health Care Costs. Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
  45. Dippel, C., S. Heblich, and R. Gold. 2015. Globalization and Its (Dis-)Content: Trade Shocks and Voting Behavior. Working Paper No. 21812, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Doward, J., and A. Gibbs. 2017. Did Cambridge Analytica Influence the Brexit Vote and the US Election. Guardian, March 4.Google Scholar
  47. Ember, S., and M. Grynbaum. 2017. BuzzFeed Posts Unverified Claims on Trump, Igniting a Debate. New York Times, January 10.Google Scholar
  48. Enns, P., J. Lagodny, and J.P. Schuldt. 2017. Understanding the 2016 US Presidential Polls: The Importance of Hidden Trump Supporters. Statistics, Politics and Policy 8: 41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Enten, H. 2016. There Were No Purple States on Tuesday. FiveThirtyEight, November 10.Google Scholar
  50. Entous, A., D. Barrett, and R. Helderman. 2017a. Clinton Campaign, DNC Paid for Russia Dossier. Washington Post, October 24, 2017.Google Scholar
  51. Entous, A., C. Timberg, and E. Dwoskin. 2017b. Obama Tried to Give Zuckerberg A Wake-Up Call on Fake News on Facebook. Washington Post, September 24.Google Scholar
  52. Entous, A., C. Timberg, and E. Dwoskin. 2017c. Russian Operatives Used Facebook Ads to Exploit Divisions Over Black Political Activism and Muslims. Washington Post, September 25.Google Scholar
  53. Entous, A., E. Nakashima, and G. Miller. 2016. Secret CIA Assessment Says Russia Was Trying to Help Trump Win White House. Washington Post, December 9.Google Scholar
  54. Epstein, G., and J.A. Montecino. 2016. Overcharged: The High Cost of High Finance. Roosevelt Institute.Google Scholar
  55. Farenthold, D.A. 2017. After Crowdsourced Investigation, Trump Inaugural Committee Admits There Were Errors in Its Donor List. Washington Post, April 25.Google Scholar
  56. Faris, R., H. Roberts, B. Etling, N. Bourassa, E. Zuckerman, and Y. Benchler. 2017. Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the U.S. Presidential Election. Berkman Klein Center, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  57. Ferguson, T. 1995a. Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and The Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. Ferguson, T. 1995b. Party Realignment and American Industrial Structure: The Investment Theory of Political Parties in Historical Perspective. In Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Ferguson, T. 2005. Holy Owned Subsidiary: Globalization, Religion, and Politics in the 2004 Election. In A Defining Election: The Presidential Race of 2004, ed. W. Crotty. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  60. Ferguson, T. 2014a. Big Money, Mass Media, and the Polarization of Congress. In Polarized Politics: The Impact of Divisiveness in the US Political System, ed. W. Crotty. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Books.Google Scholar
  61. Ferguson, T. 2014b. What’s the Real Reason “Capital in the 21st Century” Is Doing so Well in the United States? AlterNet, May 16.Google Scholar
  62. Ferguson, T., and R. Johnson. 2009a. Too Big To Bail: The “Paulson Put”, Presidential Politics, and the Global Financial Meltdown, Part I: From Shadow Banking System to Shadow Bailout. International Journal of Political Economy 38: 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ferguson, T., and R. Johnson. 2009b. Too Big To Bail: The “Paulson Put”, Presidential Politics, and the Global Financial Meltdown Part II: Fatal Reversal—Single Payer and Back. International Journal of Political Economy 38: 5–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ferguson, T., and R. Johnson. 2011. A World Upside Down? Deficit Fantasies in the Great Recession. International Journal of Political Economy 40: 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ferguson, T., and B. Page. 2017. The Hinge of Fate: Economic and Social Populism in the 2016 Election. Conference Paper. Institute for New Economic Thinking. Edinburgh. On the web at:
  66. Ferguson, T., and J. Rogers. 1986. Right Turn: The Decline of the Democrats and the Future of American Politics. New York: Hill & Wang.Google Scholar
  67. Ferguson, T., P. Jorgensen, and J. Chen. 2013. Party Compeititon and Industrial Structure in the 2012 Elections. International Journal of Political Economy 42: 3–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ferguson, T., P. Jorgensen, and J. Chen. 2016. How Money Drives US Congressional Elections. Institute for New Economic Thinking, Working Paper #48. On the web at:
  69. Ferguson, T., P. Jorgensen, and J. Chen. 2017. Fifty Shades of Green: High Finance, Political Money, and the US Congress. New York: Roosevelt Institute. On the web at:
  70. Ferguson, T., P. Jorgensen, and J. Chen. 2018. How Money Won Trump the White House. Institute for New Economic Thinking. Available on the web at
  71. Fowler, E.F., T. Ridout, and M. Franz. 2016. Political Advertising in 2016: The Presidential Election as Outlier? The Forum 14: 445–469.Google Scholar
  72. Geller, E. 2016. Emails Show Powell Unloading on Clinton, Rumsfeld and Trump. Politico, September 14.Google Scholar
  73. Gelman, A. 2016. 19 Things We Learned From the 2016 Election. Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science, December 8. On the web at:
  74. Gerschenkron, A. 1962. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Gerschenkron, A. 1966. Bread and Democracy in Germany. New York: Howard Fertig.Google Scholar
  76. Giordano, D. 2017. Giordano: IBEW On Board with Trump. Daily News, February 1.Google Scholar
  77. Glaeser, E. 2011. Triumph of the City. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  78. Gold, M. 2016. The Rise of GOP Mega-Donor Rebekah Mercer. Washington Post, September 16, 2017.Google Scholar
  79. Gold, M., and E. Dwoskin. 2017. Trump Campaign’s Embrace of Facebook Shows Company’s Growing Reach in Elections. Washington Post, October 8.Google Scholar
  80. Goodwyn, L. 1976. Democratic Promise. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Grasseger, H., and Krogerus, M. 2016. Ich Habe Nur Gezeigt dass Es Die Bombe Gibt. Das Magazin, December 3, No. 48.Google Scholar
  82. Green, J. 2017. Devil’s Bargain—Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  83. Greenwald, G. 2017. Yet Another Major Russia Story Falls Apart: Is Skepticism Permissible Yet? The Intercept, September 28.Google Scholar
  84. Guo, J. 2016. Death Predicts Whether People Will Vote for Donald Trump. Washington Post, March 4.Google Scholar
  85. Hajnal, Z., N. Lajevardi, and L. Nielson. 2017. Voter Identification Laws and the Suppression of Minority Votes. The Journal of Politics, 79(2), 363–379. Google Scholar
  86. Harding, L., S. Kirchgaessener, and N. Hopkins. 2017. British Spies Were First to Spot Trump Team’s Links to Russia. Guardian, April 13.Google Scholar
  87. Harris, S. 2016. Ahead in the Polls, Hillary Clinton Embraces GOP Neocon War Hawks: Interview with Robert Parry. Between the Lines, August 27.Google Scholar
  88. Helderman, R., T. Hamburger, and S. Rich. 2015. Clintons’ Foundation Has Raised Nearly $2 Billion—And Some Key Questions. Washington Post, February 18.Google Scholar
  89. Hirsch, B.T., and D.A. Macpherson. 2017. Union Membership and Coverage Database From the CPS. Google Scholar
  90. Hirschman, A.O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Howard, P.N., B. Kollanyi, S. Bradshaw, and Neudert, L.-M. 2017. Social Media, News, and Political Information During the US Election: Was Polarizing Content Concentrated in Swing States? Comprop Data Memo 2017.8. Oxford: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  92. Intelligence. 2017. Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections. Intelligence Community Assessment. Washington, DC: Office of the Director of National Intelligence.Google Scholar
  93. Isaac, M., and S. Shane. 2017. Facebook’s Russia-Linked Ads Came in Many Disguises. New York Times, October 2.Google Scholar
  94. Isenstadt, A. 2016. Panicked GOP Makes Major Last-Minute Senate Investment. Politico, October 25.Google Scholar
  95. Jacobson, G. 2015. Obama and Nationalized Electoral Politics in the 2014 Midterm. Political Science Quarterly 130: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Johnson, A. 2016. Washington Post Ran 16 Negative Stories on Bernie Sanders in 16 Hours., March 8.Google Scholar
  97. Karni, A. 2016. Inside Clinton’s GOP Recruitment Plan. Politico, August 9.Google Scholar
  98. Kaye, K. 2016. Trump Camp and RNC Say This Facebook Onslaught Was Risky. Ad Age, September 26.Google Scholar
  99. Kehr, E. 1977. Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy. Berkeley: University of Califiornia Press.Google Scholar
  100. Kehr, E. 2012. Schlachtflottenbau und Parteipolitik 1894–1901. Paderborn: CT Salzwasser-Verlag GmbH & Company. KG.Google Scholar
  101. Kowaljow, A. 2017. So Schokiert von Trump Wie Alle Anderen. Die Zeit, January 20.Google Scholar
  102. Kranish, M., and M. Fisher. 2016. Trump Revealed. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  103. Kreiss, D., and S. McGregor. 2017. Forget Russian Trolls: Facebook’s Own Staff Helped Win the Election. Buzzfeed, October 3.Google Scholar
  104. Kriner, D.L., and F.X. Shen. 2017. Battlefield Casualties and Ballot Box Defeat: Did the Bush Obama Wars Cost Clinton the White House? SSRN.Google Scholar
  105. Kurth, J. 1984. The Political Consequences of the Product Cycle: Industrial History and Political Outcomes. International Organization 33: 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kuttner, R. 2017. Steve Bannon, Unrepentent. American Prospect, August 16.Google Scholar
  107. Lazonick, W. 2009. Sustainable Prosperity in the New Economy: Business Organization and High Tech Employment in the United States. Upjohn Institute: Kalamazoo.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lazonick, W. 2016. The Value Extracting CEO: How Executive Stock-Based Pay Undermines Investment in Productive Capabilities. Working Paper No. 54, Institute for New Economic Thinking, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Lazonick, W. 2017. The Functions of the Stock Market and the Fallacies of Shareholder Value. Working Paper No. 58, Institute for New Economic Thinking, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Leopold, J., A. Cormier, and J. Garrison. 2017. Secret Finding: 60 Russian Payments “To Finance Election Campaign of 2016”. BuzzFeed, November 14.Google Scholar
  111. Lichtblau, E. 2017. The CIA Had Evidence of Russian Effort to Help Trump Earlier Than Believed. New York Times, April 6.Google Scholar
  112. Lichtblau, E., and S.L. Meyers. 2016. Investigating Donald Trump, F.B.I. Sees No Clear Link to Russia. New York Times, October 31.Google Scholar
  113. Linskey, A. 2016. As a Senator, Hillary Clinton Was Hands Off on Wall Street. Boston Globe, January 17.Google Scholar
  114. Lobianco, T. 2017. First on CNN: House Russia Investigators Want to Bring in Trump Digital Director., June 16.Google Scholar
  115. Lubold, G., and S. Harris. 2017. Russian Hackers Stole NSA Data On U.S. Cyber Defense. Wall Street Journal, October 5.Google Scholar
  116. Madrigal, A. 2017. 15 Things We Learned From the Tech Giants at the Senate Hearings. The Atlantic, November 2.Google Scholar
  117. Marcus, R. 2017. Hillary Clinton, Smash Your Rearview Mirror. Washington Post, June 2.Google Scholar
  118. Miller, G., E. Nakashima, and A. Entous. 2017. Obama’s Secret Struggle to Punish Russia for Putin’s Election Assault. Washington Post, June 23, 2016.Google Scholar
  119. Mitchell, A., J. Gotfried, M. Barthel, and E. Shearer. 2016. Trust and Accuracy. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  120. Money, C. 2017. The Fake News Machine: Inside A Town Gearing Up for 2020.Google Scholar
  121. Monnat, S., and D. Brown. 2017. Deaths of Despair and Support For Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election. Journal of Rural Studies 55: 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Patterson, T. 2016a. News Coverage of the 2016 General Election: How the Press Failed the Voters. Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy, December 7.Google Scholar
  123. Patterson, T. 2016b. Pre-primary News Coverage of the 2016 Race: Trump’s Rise, Sanders’ Emergence, Clinton’s Struggle. Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy, June 13.Google Scholar
  124. Phillips-Fein, K. 2009. Invisible Hands. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  125. Quigley, A., 2017. Podesta: ‘Forces Within the FBI’ May Have Cost Clinton the Election. Politico, February 21.Google Scholar
  126. Rhode, P.W., and K. Strumpf. 2004. Historical Presidential Betting Markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives 18: 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rhode, P.W., and K. Strumpf. 2007. Manipulating Political Stock Markets: A Field Experiment and a Century of Observational Data. Available on the web at:
  128. Rhode, P.W., and K. Strumpf. 2008. Historical Political Futures Markets: An International Perspective. Working Paper 14377. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  129. Ritter, S. 2017. Time to Reassess the Roles Played By Guccifer 2.0 and Russia in the DNC Hack Truth Dig, July 28.Google Scholar
  130. Rogers, K. 2017. Ignored By Big Telecom, Detroit’s Marginalized Communities Are Building Their Own Internet. Scholar
  131. Rosenberg, A. 1939. Democracy and Socialism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  132. Rosenberg, A. 1991. Geschichte der Weimarer Republik. Hamburg: Europaeische Verlagsanstalt.Google Scholar
  133. Ruffini, P. 2017. Why Russia’s Facebook Campaign Wasn’t Such a Success. Washington Post, November 3.Google Scholar
  134. Sachs, J. 2016. Hillary Is the Candidate of the War Machine. Huffington Post, February 5.Google Scholar
  135. Satter, R., J. Donn, and C. Day. 2017. Inside Story: How the Russians Hacked the Democrats’ Emails., November 4.Google Scholar
  136. Schwartz, N. 2017. Trade Worries Led Wisconsin Mill Town to Trump. It’s Still Uneasy. New York Times, November 24.Google Scholar
  137. Schweitzer, P. 2015. Clinton Cash. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  138. Shepherdson, D. 2017. Trump Meets With Leaders of Building, Sheet Metal Unions. Reuters, January 23.Google Scholar
  139. Sherman, G. 2016. How Paul Manafort Took over the Trump Campaign. New York Magazine, April 19.Google Scholar
  140. Sides, J. 2016. Five Key Lessons from Donald Trump’s Surprising Victory. Washington Post, November 9, 2017.Google Scholar
  141. Staff, N.C. 2016. Donald Trump, Speech, Debate and Campaign Quotes., November 9.Google Scholar
  142. Storm, S. 2017. The New Normal: Demand, Secular Stagnation, and the Vanishing Middle Class. Working Paper No. 55, Institute for New Economic Thinking, New York.Google Scholar
  143. Sturgis, S. 2017. Paul Manafort’s Role in the Republican’s Notorious “Southern Strategy”. Truthout, November 8.Google Scholar
  144. Subramanian, S. 2017. Fake: Inside the Macedonian Fake News Complex. Wired, February 15.Google Scholar
  145. Sullivan, S. 2016. Trump Hires Ex-Cruz Super Pac Strategist Kellyanne Conway. Washington Post, July 1.Google Scholar
  146. Swann, S. 2017. The Politics Behind Your College and How You Pay for It., August 8.Google Scholar
  147. Taylor, L. 2017. Why Stopping Tax Reform Won’t Stop Inequality. Institute for New Economic Thinking, December 15.
  148. Temin, P. 2015. The American Dual Economy: Race, Globalization, and the Politics of Exclusion. Working Paper No. 26, Institute for New Economic Thinking, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Temin, P. 2016. Race and the Vanishing Middle Class. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  150. Timberg, C. 2017. Russian Propaganda May Have Been Shared Hundreds of Millions of Times New Research Says. Washington Post, October 5.Google Scholar
  151. Times, N. Y. 2017. Correction: June 29, 2017. New York Times, June 29.Google Scholar
  152. Troyan, M., and F. Schouten. 2016. Mitch McConnell’s Late Fundraising “Flare” Raised Millions for Senate Races. USA Today, November 10.Google Scholar
  153. Trudo, H., and K. Vogel. 2016. Convicted Ponzi Schemer: I’ll Conduct $50 Million Marketing Campaign for Trump. Politico, June 16.Google Scholar
  154. Uchill, J. 2016. Report: Russia Tried to Start Own Wikileaks. The Hill, August 12.Google Scholar
  155. Vogel, K., and L. Goodstein. 2017. In Tax Debate, Gift to Religious Right Could Be Bargaining Chip. New York Times, November 26.Google Scholar
  156. Vogel, K., and M. Haberman. 2017. Conservative Website First Funded Research That Later Produced Dossier. New York Times, October 27.Google Scholar
  157. Vogel, K., and D. Samuelsohn. 2016. Trump’s Secret Data Reversal. Politico, June 28.Google Scholar
  158. Vogel, K., and D. Stern. 2017. Ukrainian Efforts to Sabatoge Trump Backfire. Politico, January 11.Google Scholar
  159. Weil, D. 2017. The Fissured Workplace. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Wheeler, M. 2016. The Obamacare Not Comey Effect. The Empty Wheel, December 11.Google Scholar
  161. Wheeler, M. 2017a. Facebook Anonymously Admits It Id’d Guccifer 2.0 in Real Time. The Empty Wheel, September 24.Google Scholar
  162. Wheeler, M. 2017b. We Have No Idea What Emails the Papadopoulos Emails Refer To. The Empty Wheel, October 31.Google Scholar
  163. Wines, M. 2016. Some Republicans Acknowledge Leveraging Voter ID Laws For Political Gain. New York Times, September 16.Google Scholar
  164. Yoon, R. 2016. $153 Million in Bill and Hillary Clinton Speaking Fees, Documented. CNN, February 6.Google Scholar
  165. Zonta, M., S. Edelman, and C. McArthur. 2016. The Role of Midwestern Housing Instability in the 2016 Election. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of Texas Rio Grande ValleyEdinburgUSA

Personalised recommendations