Advertisement

Discourse and EU Policy-Making

  • Kennet LynggaardEmail author
Chapter
  • 529 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on political discourses as a device of inclusion and exclusion in European Union policy-making. The claim is that discourse is decisive for which actors are included and excluded from EU policy-making, for setting the procedures that guide decision making, and for which issues stand a chance for serious consideration in EU political agendas. For the purpose of studying the roles of discourse in EU policy-making, this chapter outlines discursive path-dependency as a concept of discursive resistance and further elaborates a series of mechanisms for the study of change, including that of discursive ambiguity, processes of translation, discursive entrepreneurship and expertise as the advancement of analytical ideas in policy-making. The chapter presents empirical examples from the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy and concludes by suggesting a series of relationships between the mechanisms of discursive resistance and change.

References

  1. Ackrill, R., & Kay, A. (2011). Multiple Streams in EU Policy-Making: The Case of the 2005 Sugar Reform. Journal of European Public Policy, 18(1), 72–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldi, G. (2012). Schools with a Difference: Policy Discourses and Education Reform in Britain and Germany. West European Politics, 35(5), 999–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer, M. W. (2002). Limitations to Agency Control in European Union Policy-Making: The Commission and the Poverty Programmes. Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(3), 381–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Béland, D. (2009). Ideas, Institutions, and Policy Change. Journal of European Public Policy, 16(5), 701–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Béland, D., & Cox, R. H. (2016). Ideas as Coalition Magnets: Coalition Building, Policy Entrepreneurs, and Power Relations. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(3), 428–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biebuyck, W. (2016). Food Supply and Government: A “Victualized” Reading of European Modernity. Comparative European Politics, 14(4), 477–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Björkdahl, A. (2008). Norm Advocacy: A Small State Strategy to Influence the EU. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(1), 135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blom, T., & Vanhoonacker, S. (2014). The Politics of Information: A New Research Agenda. In T. Blom & S. Vanhoonacker (Eds.), The Politics of Information: The Case of the European Union (pp. 1–16). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blyth, M. (2002). Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borrás, S., & Radaelli, C. M. (2011). The Politics of Governance Architectures: Creation, Change and Effects of the EU Lisbon Strategy. Journal of European Public Policy, 18(4), 463–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Börzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2012a). From Europeanisation to Diffusion: Introduction. West European Politics, 35(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Börzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2012b). When Europeanisation Meets Diffusion: Exploring New Territory. West European Politics, 35(1), 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, J. L. (1998). Institutional Analysis and the Role of Ideas in Political Economy. Theory and Society, 27, 377–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, J. L. (2004). Institutionel forandring og globalisering. Copenhagen: Adademisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, J. L., & Pedersen, O. K. (2001). The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis. In J. L. Campbell & O. K. Pedersen (Eds.), The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis (pp. 1–23). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carstensen, M. B., & Schmidt, V. A. (2016). Power Through, over and in Ideas: Conceptualizing Ideational Power in Discursive Institutionalism. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(3), 318–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cengiz, F. (2016). Legitimacy and Multi-level Governance in European Union Competition Law: A Deliberative Discursive Approach. Journal of Common Market Studies, 54(4), 826–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christensen, J. (2015). The Organization of Professional Expertise in the European Commission. Politics and Governance, 3(1), 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coleman, W. D., & Tangermann, S. (1999). The 1992 CAP Reform, the Uruguay Round and the Commission: Conceptualising Linked Policy Games. Journal of Common Market Studies, 37(3), 385–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Copeland, P., & Scott, J. (2014). Policy Windows, Ambiguity and Commission Entrepreneurship: Explaining the Relaunch of the European Union’s Economic Reform Agenda. Journal of European Public Policy, 21(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Council. (1973). Declaration of the Council of the European Communities…on the Programme of Action of the European Communities on the Environment. Official Journal C 112. Luxembourg: EUP-OP.Google Scholar
  22. Council. (1977). Resolution of the Council of the European Community….on the Continuation and Implementation of an European Community Policy and Action Programme on the Environment. Luxembourg: EUP-OP.Google Scholar
  23. Crespy, A., & Schmidt, V. (2014). The Clash of Titans: France, Germany and the Discursive Double Game of EMU Reform. Journal of European Public Policy, 21(8), 1085–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daugbjerg, C., & Feindt, P. H. (2017). Post-exceptionalism in Public Policy: Transforming Food and Agricultural Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 24(11), 1565–1584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1991). The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. In P. J. DiMaggio & W. W. Powell (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (pp. 63–82). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dobbels, M., & Neuhold, C. (2014). Who Selects What and How? How the European Parliament Obtain and Process Information for Policy-Making. In T. Blom & S. Vanhoonacker (Eds.), The Politics of Information: The Case of the European Union (pp. 78–92). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. European Commission. (1985, July 15). Communication from the Commission to the Council and Parliament: Perspectives for the Common Agricultural Policy (COM [85] 333 Final). Luxembourg: EUP-OP.Google Scholar
  28. European Commission. (1989). Proposal for a Council Regulation (EEC) on Organic Production… (COM [89] 552 Final). Brussels: CEC.Google Scholar
  29. European Parliament. (1986, February 3). On Agriculture and the Environment: Report on Behalf of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection (Document A 2-207/85).Google Scholar
  30. Fischer, F. (1990). Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Fouilleux, E. (2004). Reforms and Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Another View on Discourse Efficiency. West European Politics, 27(2), 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fouilleux, E., Bricas, N., & Alpha, A. (2017). “Feeding 9 Billion People”: Global Food Security Debates and the Productionist Trap. Journal of European Public Policy, 24(11), 1658–1677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Germond, C. (2014). Intermation, Expertise, and the Common Agricultural Policy: The Role and Influence of European Farm Organisations in Historical Perspective. In T. Blom & S. Vanhoonacker (Eds.), The Politics of Information: The Case of the European Union (pp. 161–176). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gornitzka, Å., & Holst, C. (2015). The Expert-Executive Nexus in the EU: An Introduction. Politics and Governance, 3(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gornitzka, Å., & Sverdrup, U. (2014). The European Commission’s Expert Groups as Information System. In T. Blom & S. Vanhoonacker (Eds.), The Politics of Information: The Case of the European Union (pp. 127–145). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hajer, M. A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernisation and the Policy Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, P. A. (1993). Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain. Comparative Politics, 25(3), 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hass, P. M. (1992). Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination. International Organization, 46(1), 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hay, C. (2001). The ‘Crisis’ of Keynesianism and the Rise of Neoliberalism in Britain. In J. L. Campbell & O. K. Pedersen (Eds.), The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis (pp. 193–218). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Howorth, J. (2004). Discourse, Ideas, and Epistemic Communities in European Security and Defence Policy. West European Politics, 27(2), 211–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jegen, M., & Mérand, F. (2014). Constructive Ambiguity: Comparing the EU’s Energy and Defence Policies. West European Politics, 37(1), 182–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jovanovic, T. H., & Lynggaard, K. (2014). Selective Europeanization: A Path-Dependency Perspective on Danish Minority Policy. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 13(3), 86–112.Google Scholar
  43. Kaelberer, M. (2004). The Euro and European Identity: Symbols, Power and the Politics of European Monetary Union. Review of International Studies, 30(2), 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kay, A. (1998). The Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  45. Kinderman, D. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in the EU, 1993–2013: Institutional Ambiguity, Economic Crises, Business Legitimacy and Bureaucratic Politics. Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(4), 701–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies (2nd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  47. Kjær, P., & Pedersen, O. K. (2001). Translating Liberalization: Neoliberalism in the Danish Negotiated Economy. In J. L. Campbell & O. K. Pedersen (Eds.), The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis (pp. 219–248). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kostadinova, V. (2013). The European Commission and the Configuration of Internal European Union Borders: Direct and Indirect Contribution. Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(2), 264–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lenschow, A., & Zito, A. (1998). Blurring or Shifting of Policy Frames? Institutionalisation of the Economic-Environmental Policy Linkage in the European Community. Governance, 11(4), 415–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lynggaard, K. (2006). The Common Agricultural Policy and Organic Farming: An Institutional Perspective on Continuity and Change. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Google Scholar
  51. Lynggaard, K. (2007). The Institutional Construction of a Policy Field: A Discursive Institutional Perspective on Change Within the Common Agricultural Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(2), 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lynggaard, K. (2008). Ideas in EU Decision Making: Towards a Typology of Ideas and Ideational Change. In S. Scheuer & J. D. Scheuer (Eds.), The Anatomy of Change: A Neo-institutional Perspective (pp. 209–236). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lynggaard, K. & Nedergaard, P. (2009). The Logic of Policy Development: Lessons Learned from Reform and Routine within the CAP 1980–2003. Journal of European Integration, 31(3), 291–309.Google Scholar
  54. Mendez, C. (2013). The Post-2013 Reform of EU Cohesion Policy and the Place-Based Narrative. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(5), 639–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Minet, P. (1962). Full Text of the Rome Treaty and an ABC of the Common Market. London, UK: Tileyard Press.Google Scholar
  56. Moyer, H. W., & Josling, T. E. (2002). Agricultural Policy Reform: Politics and Process in the EU and the US in the 1990s. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  57. Nedergaard, P. (2007). Blocking Minorities: Networks and Meaning in the Opposition Against the Proposal for a Directive on Temporary Work in the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(2), 695–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ossege, C. (2015). Driven by Expertise and Insulation? The Autonomy of European Regulatory Agencies. Politics and Governance, 3(1), 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Patterson, L. A. (1997). Agricultural Policy Reform in the European Community: A Three-Level Game Analysis. International Organization, 51(1), 135–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Paul, K. T. (2012). The Europeanization of Food Safety: A Discourse-Analytical Approach. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(4), 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pedersen, L. H. (2007). Ideas Are Transformed as They Transfer: A Comparative Study of Eco-taxation in Scandinavia. Journal of European Public Policy, 14(1), 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pedersen, O. K. (1995). Problemets anatomi: eller problemet, der er et problem. Tendens - Tidsskrift for Kultursociologi, 7(1), 10–21.Google Scholar
  63. Pierson, P. (2000). Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics. American Political Science Review, 94(2), 251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Radaelli, C. M. (1999). The Public Policy of the European Union: Whither Politics of Expertise. Journal of European Public Policy, 6(5), 757–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Radaelli, C. M. (2007). Whither Better Regulation for the Lisbon Agenda? Journal of European Public Policy, 14(2), 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Richardson, J. (2006). Policy-Making in the EU: Interests, Ideas and Garbage Cans of Primeval Soup. In J. Richardson (Ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making (pp. 3–31). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Salter, B., & Jones, M. (2005). Biobanks and Bioethics: The Politics of Legitimation. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(4), 710–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schmidt, V. A. (2002). Europeanization of and the Mechanics of Economic Adjustment. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(6), 894–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmidt, V. A. (2016). Reinterpreting the Rules “By Stealth” in Times of Crisis: A Discursive Institutionalist Analysis of the European Central Bank and the European Commission. West European Politics, 39(5), 1032–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schmidt, V. A., & Radaelli, C. M. (2004). Policy Change and Discourse in Europe: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. West European Politics, 27(2), 183–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schmidt, V. A., & Thatcher, M. (2013). Theorising Ideational Continuity: The Resilience of Neo-Liberal Ideas in Europe. In V. A. Schmidt & M. Thatcher (Eds.), Resilient Liberalism in Europe’s Political Economy (pp. 1–52). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schot, J., & Schipper, F. (2011). Experts and European Transport Integration, 1945–1958. Journal of European Public Policy, 18(2), 274–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Skogstad, G. (1998). Ideas, Paradigms and Institutions: Agricultural Exceptionalism in the European Union and the United States. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, 11(4), 463–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strang, D., & Meyer, J. (1994). Institutional Conditions for Diffusion. In W. R. Scott & J. W. Meyer (Eds.), Institutional Environments and Organizations: Structural Complexity and Individualism (pp. 100–112). New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  75. Torfing, J. (2009). Rethinking Path Dependence in Public Policy Research. Critical Policy Studies, 3(1), 70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Trondal, J., Murdoch, Z., & Geys, B. (2015). Representative Bureaucracy and the Role of Expertise in Politics. Politics and Governance, 3(1), 26–36.Google Scholar
  77. Van Den Hoven, A. (2004). Assuming Leadership in Multilateral Economic Institutions: The EU’s ‘Development Round’ Discourse and Strategy. West European Politics, 27(2), 256–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. van Waarden, F., & Drahos, M. (2002). Courts and (Epistemic) Communities in the Convergence of Competition Policies. Journal of European Public Policy, 9(6), 913–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Verdun, A. (1999). The Role of the Delors Committee in the Creation of EMU: An Epistemic Community? Journal of European Public Policy, 6(2), 308–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wincott, D. (2004). Policy Change and Discourse in Europe: Can the EU Make a ‘Square Meal Out of a Stew of Paradox’? West European Politics, 27(2), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zito, A. R. (2001). Epistemic Communities, Collective Entrepreneurship and European Integration. Journal of European Public Policy, 8(4), 585–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social Sciences and BusinessRoskilde UniversityRoskildeDenmark

Personalised recommendations