Advertisement

Gender, Racism, and Migrant Reproductive Labour in Italy and Europe

  • Ester Gallo
  • Francesca Scrinzi
Chapter
Part of the Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship book series (MDC)

Abstract

This chapter locates the issues of racism, masculinities, and reproductive labour in the specifics of the Italian cultural and political context, connecting its national features to European tendencies. This chapter discusses how ethnicity, gender, and religion/secularism operate in Europe and in Italy to construct forms of exploitation and discrimination in specific occupational settings. Restrictive immigration policies are associated with public and political debates constructing racialised hierarchies based on ideas of gender, sexuality, and religion. In Italy, immigration policies confer on migrant men in paid domestic/care work the respectability they would otherwise lack. Here, (Christian) migrant men employed in the private sphere of the home emerge as the opposite and complementary figure to the threatening (Muslim) masculine Others who are hyper-visible in the public space.

Keywords

Gender Equality Sexual Violence Muslim Woman Migrant Woman Religious Pluralism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Akkerman, T., and A. Hagelund. 2007. Women and children first! Patterns of Prejudice 41(2): 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ålund, A. 1999. Feminism, multiculturalism, essentialism. In Women, citizenship and difference, ed. N. Yuval-Davis and P. Werbner. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrosini, M. 2000. Senza distinzioni di razza. Terzo settore e integrazione degli immigranti. Sociologia e politiche sociali 3(3): 127–152.Google Scholar
  4. Ambrosini, M. 2007. Gli immigrati e la religione: Fattore d’integrazione o alteritá irriducibile? Studi Emigrazione XLIV(165): 33–53.Google Scholar
  5. Ambrosini, M. 2009. L’ennesima ultima sanatoria. Available at: http://www.lavoce.info/archives/25854/lennesima-ultima-sanatoria/.
  6. Ambrosini, M. 2013. Irregular migration and invisible welfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambrosini, M. 2015. Protected but separated: International immigrants in the Italian Catholic Church. Paper presented at the workshop on Migration, Transnationalism and Catholicism, Middlesex University, London, February 2014.Google Scholar
  8. Ambrosini, M., and E. Caneva. 2010. Tolerance and cultural diversity discourses in Italy. Italy country report. ACCEPT PLURALISM research project, Florence, European University Institute. Available at: http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/19776/ACCEPT_2010-03_Wp1_BackgroundReport_Italy.pdf?sequence=1
  9. Andall, J. 1998. Catholic and state constructions of domestic workers: The case of Cape Verdean women in Rome in the 1970s. In The new migration in Europe, ed. K. Koser and H. Lutz. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. Andall, J. 2000. Gender, migration and domestic service. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. Andall, J. 2002. Second-generation attitude? African-Italians in Milan. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(3): 389–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Andall, J. 2007. Immigration and the Italian left democrats in government (1996/2001). Patterns of Prejudice 41(2): 131–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Andall, J. 2010. The G2 networks and other second-generation voices: Claiming rights and transforming identities. In National belongings: Hybridity in Italian colonial and postcolonial cultures, ed. J. Andall and D. Duncan, 171–193. Oxford: Lang.Google Scholar
  14. Anderson, B. 2007. A very private business: Exploring the demand for migrant domestic workers. European Journal of Women’s Studies 14(3): 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Andrieux, A. 2005. Quels sont les acteurs qui expriment et développent les idées utilitaristes en matière d’immigration, en France et en Europe, depuis les années 90? Recueil Alexandries, Collections Synthèses. Available at: http://www.reseau-terra.eu/article441.html
  16. Anthias, F. 1998. Rethinking social divisions. The Sociological Review 46(3): 505–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Anthias, F. 2001. The material and the symbolic in theorizing social stratification. British Journal of Sociology 52(3): 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ascoli, U., and C. Ranci (eds.). 2002. Dilemmas of the welfare mix. The new structure of welfare in an era of privatization. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  19. Bakan, A.B., and D.K. Stasiulis. 1995. Making the match: Domestic placement agencies and the racialization of women’s household work. Signs 20(2): 303–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bale, T. 2008. Turning around the telescope. Centre-right party, immigration and integration policy in Europe. Journal of European Public Policy 15(3): 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Balibar, E. 1988. Racisme et nationalisme. In Race, nation, classe. Les Identités Ambiguës, ed. E. Balibar and I. Wallerstein. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  22. Balibar, E., and I. Wallerstein. 1988. Race, nation, classe. Les identités ambiguës. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  23. Barker, M. 1982. The new racism. London: Junction Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bauman, Z. 2000. Globalisation – the human consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Bertezzolo, P. 2011. Padroni a chiesa nostra. Vent’ani di politica religiosa della Lega Nord. Roma: EMI.Google Scholar
  26. Bettio, F., A. Simonazzi, and P. Villa. 2006. Change in care regimes and female migration: The ‘care drain’ in the Mediterranean. Journal of European Social Policy 16(3): 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Betz, H.G. 1994. Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bhavnani, K.-K. 1993. Towards a multicultural Europe? Feminist Review 45: 30–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bigo, D. 2008. Globalized (in)security: The field and the ban-opticon. In Terror, insecurity and liberty. Illeberal practices of liberal regimes after 9/11, ed. D. Bigo and A. Tsoukala. Oxon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Bracke, S. 2011. Subjects of debate: Secular and sexual exceptionalism, and Muslim women in the Netherlands. Feminist Review 98(July): 28–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brah, A. 1993. Re-framing Europe: En-gendered racisms, ethnicities and nationalisms in contemporary western Europe. Feminist Review 45(November): 9–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brion, F. 2009. Using gender to shape difference. In Racial criminalization of migrants in the 21st century, ed. S. Palidda. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  33. Bowen, J.R. 2008. Why the French don’t like headscarves: Islam, the state and public space. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Calavita, K. 2006. Gender, migration, and law: Crossing borders and bridging disciplines. International Migration Review 40(1): 104–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carby, H. 1982. White woman listen! Black feminism and the boundaries of sisterhood. In The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s in Britain, ed. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. London: Hutchison.Google Scholar
  36. Carter, D.M. 1997. States of grace: Senegalese in Italy and the New European immigration. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  37. Carvalho, J. 2014. Impact of extreme right parties on immigration policy: Comparing Britain, France and Italy. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Casanova, J. 2005. Immigration and the new religious pluralism: An EU-US comparison. Paper presented at the conference ‘The new religious pluralism and democracy’. Georgetown University, 21–22 Apr 2005. Available at: http://irpp.georgetown.edu/conference.htm. Accessed 25 June 2012.
  39. Casanova, J. 2006. Religion, European, secular identities and European integration. In Religion in the New Europe, ed. K. Michalski. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Celi, G. 2003. L’azione delle Api-Colf per la promozione delle persone a servizio dell’uomo. Rome: Società Tipografica Italiana.Google Scholar
  41. Cento-Bull, A. 2009. Lega Nord: A case of simulative politics? South European Society and Politics 14(2): 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cette France là. 2009. Le sexe de l’immigration. In Cette France là. 06/05/2007-20/06/2008. http://www.cettefrancela.net/volume-1/descriptions/article/le-sexe-de-l-immigration?artpage=2-2
  43. Chaïb, S. 2008. Femmes immigrées et travail salarié. Cahiers du Cedref 16: 209–229.Google Scholar
  44. Choo, H.Y., and M.M. Ferree. 2010. Practicing intersectionality in sociological research. Sociological Theory 28(2): 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Clark, A. 2007. The rhetoric of masculine citizenship. In Representing masculinity, ed. S. Dudink, K. Hagemann, and A. Clark. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Colombo, A., and G. Sciortino. 2004. The Bossi-Fini: Explicit fanaticism, implicit moderatism and poisoned fruits. In Italian politics: The second Berlusconi government, ed. J. Blondel and P. Segatti. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  47. Coppola, M., and S. Sabelli. 2012. Not a country for women, nor for blacks. In Teaching “Race” with a gendered edge, ed. B. Hipfl and K. Loftsdóttir. Utrecht/Budapest: ATGENDER and Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Cousin, B., and T. Vitale. 2014. Le magistère intellectuel islamophobe d’Oriana Fallaci. Sociologie 1(5). (online 12 May 2014). Accessed 18 Dec 2014 at http://sociologie.revues.org/2195
  49. Crowhurst, I. 2007. Socio-political and legal representations of migrant women sex labourers in Italy: Between discourse and praxis. In Women and immigration law, ed. S. van Walsum and T. Spijkerboer. New York: Routledge-Cavendish.Google Scholar
  50. Crowhurst, I. 2012. Caught in the victim/criminal paradigm: Female migrant prostitution in contemporary Italy. Modern Italy 17(4): 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dal Lago, A. 1999. Non-persone. L’esclusione dei migranti in una società globale. Milan: Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  52. Degiuli, F. 2007. A job with no boundaries. Home elderly care work in Italy. European Journal of Women’s Studies 14(3): 193–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Delanty, G. 2008. Fear of others: Social exclusion and the European crisis of solidarity. Social Policy and Administration 42(6): 676–690.Google Scholar
  54. Derné, S. 2000. Men’s sexuality and women’s subordination in Indian nationalisms. In Gender ironies of nationalism, ed. T. Mayer. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Dixon, T., and D. Linz. 2000. Overrepresentation and underrepresentation of African Americans and Latinos as lawbreakers on television news. Journal of Communication 50(2): 131–154.Google Scholar
  56. Ehrkamp, P. 2008. Risking publicity. Masculinities and the racialisation of public neighbourhood space. Social & Cultural Geography 9(2): 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fassin, D. 2006. Questions sexuelles, questions raciales. In De la question sociale à la question raciale? ed. D. Fassin and E. Fassin. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  58. Feldman, G. 2005. Essential crises. A performative approach to migrants, minorities, and the European Nation-state. Anthropological Quarterly 78(1): 213–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ferraris, F., and S. Sai. 2014. Sikhs in Italy: Khalsa identity from mimesis to display. In Migration and religion in Europe: Comparative perspectives on South Asian experiences, ed. E. Gallo. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  60. Finch, J., and D. Groves. 1983. A labour of love: Women, work and caring. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  61. Gallo, E. 2006. Italy is not a good place for men. Narratives of place, marriage and masculinity among Malayali migrants in Rome. Global Networks 6(4): 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gallo, E. 2014. A suitable faith. Catholicism, domestic labour and identity politics among Malayalis in Rome. In Migration and religion in Europe: Comparative perspectives on South Asian experiences, ed. E. Gallo. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  63. Garau, E. 2010. The Catholic Church, universal truth and the debate on national identity and immigration. In Italy today: The sick man of Europe, ed. A. Mammone and G.A. Veltri. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Garelli, F. 2013. Catholiques, politique et culture. Le cas Italien. Social Compass 60(3): 332–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gaspard, F. 1998. Invisibles, diabolisées, instrumentalisées, figures des migrantes et de leurs filles. In Les nouvelles frontières de l'inégalité. Hommes et femmes sur le marché du travail, ed. M. Maruani. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  66. Gavanas, A., and F. Williams. 2008. The intersection of child care regimes and migration regimes: A three-country study. In Migration and domestic work: A European perspective on a global theme, ed. H. Lutz. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Geddes, A. 2008. Il Rombo dei Cannoni? Immigration and the centre-right in Italy. Journal of European Public Policy 15(3): 349–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goreau, A. 2014. Ganesha Chaturthi and the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora in Paris. Inventing strategies of visibility and legitimacy in a plural monocultural society. In Migration and religion in Europe: Comparative perspectives on South Asian experiences, ed. E. Gallo. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  69. Grillo, R. 2002. Immigration and the politics of recognising difference in Italy. In The politics of recognizing difference: Multiculturalism Italian-style, ed. R. Grillo and J. Pratt. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  70. Grillo, R.D. 2003. Cultural essentialism and cultural anxiety. Anthropological Theory 3(2): 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guénif Soulimas, N., and É. Macé. 2004. Les Féministes et le garçon arabe. Paris: Editions de l’Aube.Google Scholar
  72. Guibernau, Montserrat. 2010. Migration and the rise of the radical right. Policy Network 1–19.Google Scholar
  73. Guillaumin, C. 1972. L’Idéologie raciste. Genèse et langage actuel. Paris, La Haye: Mouton.Google Scholar
  74. Hamel, C. 2005. De la racialisation du sexisme au sexisme identitaire. Migrations Société 17(99–100): 91–104.Google Scholar
  75. Hill Collins, P. 1990. Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Hochschild, A.R. 2000. The nanny chain. The American Prospect 3(January): 32–36.Google Scholar
  77. Huysseune, M. 2000. Masculinity and secessionism in Italy: An assessment. Nations and Nationalism 6(4): 591–610.Google Scholar
  78. Itçaina, X. 2006. The Roman Catholic Church and the immigration issue. American Behavioural Scientist 49(11): 1471–1488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jugé, T.S., and M.P. Perez. 2006. The modern colonial politics of citizenship and whiteness in France. Social Identities 12(2): 187–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kandiyoti, D. 1991. Identity and its discontents. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 20(3): 429–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lainati, C. 2000. I Filippini a Milano. In Socialità e inserimento degli immigrati a Milano, ed. S. Palidda. Milan: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  82. Lal, M. 2003. Sexe, genre et historiographie féministe contemporaine: l’exemple de l’Inde coloniale. Cahiers du Genre 34: 149–169.Google Scholar
  83. Lamière, J. 2008. De la continuité entre deux prescriptions : de l’intégration à l’identité nationale. Journal des anthropologues. Hors-série: 185–199. Available at http://jda.revues.org/3040?lang=en. Accessed 15 Sept 2012.
  84. Lamura, G., H. Döhner, and C. Kofahl (eds.). 2008. Family carers of older people in Europe: A six-country comparative study. Hamburg: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
  85. Lazaridis, G. 2000. Filipino and Albanian women migrant workers in Greece. In Gender and migration in southern Europe: Women on the move, ed. F. Anthias and G. Lazaridis. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  86. Le Espiritu, Y. 1997. Asian American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Lendaro, A., and C. Imdorf. 2012. The use of ethnicity in recruiting domestic labour. Employee Relations 34(6): 613–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lewis, G. 2006. Imaginaries of Europe. Technologies of gender, economies of power. European Journal of Women’s Studies 13(2): 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lutz, H., A. Phoenix, and N. Yuval-Davis. 1995. Crossfires: Nationalism, racism and gender in Europe. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  90. Macklin, A. 1992. Foreign domestic worker: Surrogate housewife or mail order servant? McGill Law Journal 37(3): 681–760.Google Scholar
  91. Mai, N. 2002. Myths and moral panics: Italian identity and the media representation of Albanian immigration. In The politics of recognising difference: Multiculturalism Italian style, ed. R.D. Grillo and J. Pratt. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  92. Maneri, M. 2011. Media discourse on immigration. In Criminalisation and victimization of migrants in Europe, ed. S. Palidda. Aldeshot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  93. Mangan, J.A., and J. Walvin (eds.). 1987. Manliness and morality: Middle-class masculinity in Britain and America 1800–1940. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Maréchal, B. 2002. L’intégration de l’Islam et des communautés musulmanes en Europe. Quelques éclairages. Studi Emigrazione XXXIX(147): 579–591.Google Scholar
  95. Massetti, E. 2014. Mainstream parties and the politics of immigration in Italy. A structural advantage for the right or a missed opportunity for the left? Acta Politica. Online before print 22 Aug 2014. doi: 10.1057/ap.2014.29.Google Scholar
  96. Matthews, G., and M. Ruhs. 2007. Are you being served? Employer demand for migrant labour in the UK’s hospitality sector.. Working Paper No. 51. University of Oxford, COMPAS. Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/wp-07-51/. Accessed 13 Apr 2015.
  97. Mauritano, L. 2002. An obsession of with cultural difference: Representations of immigrants in Turin. In The politics of recognizing difference: Multiculturalism, the Italian style, ed. R. Grillo and J. Pratt, 42–59. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  98. McClintock, A. 1993. Family feuds: Gender, nationalism and the family. Feminist Review 44(Summer): 61–80.Google Scholar
  99. McClintock, A. 1995. Imperial leather: Race, gender, and sexuality in the colonial contest. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. McDowell, L. 2009. Old and new European economic migrants: Whiteness and managed migration projects. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35(1): 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McDowell, L., E. Rootham, and A. Hardgrove. 2014. Precarious work, protest masculinity and communal regulation. Work, Employment and Society 28(6): 847–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Meer, N., C. Dwyer, and T. Modood. 2010. Embodying nationhood? Sociological Review 58(1): 84–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Melotti, U. 1997. International migration in Europe: Social projects and political cultures. In The politics of multiculturalism in Europe: Racism, identity and community, ed. T. Modood and P. Werbner. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  104. Meret, S., and B. Siim. 2013. Gender, populism and politics of belonging: Discourses of right-wing populist parties in Denmark, Norway and Austria. In Negotiating gender and diversity in an emergent European public sphere, ed. B. Siim and M. Mokre. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  105. Miles, R. 1989. Racism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Miles, R. 1993. Racism after ‘Race relations’. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Model, S., and L. Lang. 2003. The cost of not being a Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada. International Migration Review 36(4): 1063–1081.Google Scholar
  108. Morokvasic, M. 1983. Women in migration: Beyond the reductionist outlook. In One way ticket: Migration and female labour, ed. A. Phizacklea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  109. Mucchielli, L. 2005. Le scandale des tournantes. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  110. Mulinari, D., and A. Neergard. 2014. We are Sweden democrats because we care for others. European Journal of Women’s Studies 21(1): 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nagel, J. 1998. Masculinity and nationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2): 242–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Napolitano, V. 2007. Of migrant revelations and anthropological awakenings. Social Anthropology 15(1): 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ozzano, L., and A. Giorgi. 2013. The debate on the crucifix in public spaces in twenty-first century Italy. Mediterranean Politics 18(2): 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pace, E. 2013. Achilles and the tortoise. A society monopolized by Catholicism faced with an unexpected religious pluralism. Social Compass 60(3): 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pavolini, E., and C. Ranci. 2008. Restructuring the welfare state: Reforms in long-term care in Western European countries. Journal of European Social Policy 18(3): 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pittau, F. 2005. Aspetti sociali e religiosi del lavoro delle badanti e colf straniere in Italia. Fourth Seminary of Gospel, labour and immigration: Domestic women and men labourers. Workshop Rome, 21 Jan 2005.Google Scholar
  117. Pries, L. (ed.). 2013. Shifting boundaries of belonging and new migration dynamics in Europe and China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  118. Quaderni CEI. Notiziario dell’Ufficio Nationale per i Problemi Sociali e il Lavoro. X (3 Apr): 109–119.Google Scholar
  119. Réa, A. (ed.). 1998. Immigration et racisme en Europe. Bruxelles: Éditions Complexe.Google Scholar
  120. Réa, A. 2001. Les politiques d'intégration des immigrés en Europe: entre domination et émancipation. In La médiation sociale et culturelle: enjeux professionnels et politiques. L'exemple des femmes-relais, promotrices de l'intégration des migrants. Paris: Profession Banlieue.Google Scholar
  121. Riccio, B. 2007. ‘Toubab’ e ‘vu Cumprà’. Transnazionalità e rappresentazioni nelle migrazioni senegalesi in Italia. Padua: CLEUP.Google Scholar
  122. Ritaine, É. 2005. Introduction. Quand parler de l’Autre c’est parler de Soi. In L’Europe du Sud face à l’immigration: Politique de l’Étranger, ed. É. Ritaine. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  123. Rivera, A. 2005. La guerra dei simboli.Veli postcoloniali e retoriche sull’alterità. Bari: Dedalo.Google Scholar
  124. Rivera, A. 2010. Les dérives de l'universalisme. Ethnocentrisme et islamophobie en France et en Italie. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  125. Rolandsen, A.L., and R. Sata. 2013. Gendered identity constructions in political discourse: The cases of Denmark and Hungary. In Negotiating gender and diversity in an emergent European public sphere, ed. B. Siim and M. Mokre. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  126. Rostock, P., and S. Berghahn. 2008. The ambivalent role of gender in redefining the German nation. Ethnicities 8(3): 345–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rydgren, J. 2003. Meso-level reasons for racism and xenophobia. European Journal of Social Theory 6(1): 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Salih, R. 2009. Muslim women, fragmented secularism and the construction of interconnected “publics” in Italy’. Social Anthropology 17(4): 409–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sarti, R. 1994. Zita, serva e santa. Un modello da imitare? In Modelli di santità e modelli di comportamento. Contrasti, intersezioni, complementarità, ed. G. Barone, M. Caffiero, and F. Scorza Barcellona. Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.Google Scholar
  130. Schneider, J., and J. Schneider. 2008. The anthropology of crime and criminalisation. Annual Review of Anthropology 37: 351–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schrock, D., and M. Schwalbe. 2009. Men, masculinity and manhood acts. Annual Review of Sociology 35: 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sciortino, G., and A. Colombo. 2004. The flows and the flood: The public discourse on immigration in Italy, 1969-2001. Journal of Modern Italian Studies 9(1): 94–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Scott, J.W. 2007. The politics of the veil. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Scrinzi, F. 2008. Migrations and the restructuring of the welfare state in Italy: Change and continuity in the domestic work sector. In Migration and domestic work. A European perspective on a global theme, ed. H. Lutz. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  135. Scrinzi, F. 2010. Masculinities and the international division of care: Migrant male domestic workers in Italy and France. Men and Masculinities 13(1): 44–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Scrinzi, F. 2013. Genre, migrations et emplois de care en France et en Italie. Paris: Editions Pétra.Google Scholar
  137. Sinha, M. 1995. Colonial masculinity: The ‘manly Englishman’ and the ‘effeminate Bengali’ in the late nineteenth century. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Stolcke, V. 1995. Talking culture: New boundaries, new rhetorics of exclusion in Europe. Current Anthropology 36(1): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tissot, S. 2008. Bilan d’un féminisme d’Etat. Available at: http://lmsi.net/Bilan-d-un-feminisme-d-Etat
  140. Towns, A., E. Karlsson, and J. Eyre. 2014. The equality conundrum. Party Politics 20(2): 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Triandafyllidou, A. 2006. Religious diversity and multiculturalism in Southern Europe. In Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship, ed. T. Modood, A. Triandafyllidou, and R. Zapata-Barrero. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  142. Van Walsum, S., and T. Spijkerboer. 2007. Women and immigration law: New variations on classical feminist themes. Routledge-Cavendish.Google Scholar
  143. Vertovec, S., and S. Wessendorf. 2010. Introduction: Assessing the backlash against multiculturalism in Europe. In The multiculturalism backlash: European discourses, policies and practices, ed. S. Vertovec and S. Wessendorf. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  144. Wade, P. (ed.). 2007. Race, ethnicity and the nation. Perspectives from Kinship and genetics. Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  145. Weldes, J., M. Laffey, H. Gusterson, and R. Duvall (eds.). 1999. Cultures of insecurity: States, communities and the production of danger. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  146. Woodcock, S. 2010. Gender as catalyst for violence against Roma in Italy. Patterns of Prejudice 44(5): 469–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yuval-Davis, N. 1997. Gender and nation. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  148. Yuval-Davis, N., and F. Anthias. 1989. Women-nation-state. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zincone, G. 2006. The making of policies: Immigration and immigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32(3): 347–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ester Gallo
    • 1
  • Francesca Scrinzi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyGediz UniversityMenemen (Izmir)Turkey
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations