Advertisement

China’s Dual Diplomacy: Arab Iraq and the Kurdistan Region

  • Mohammed Shareef
Part of the The Nottingham China Policy Institute Series book series (NCP)

Abstract

Iraq’s foreign relations consist of three major intersecting loops — the East, the West, and international institutions. The first circle of Iraq’s interactions deal with neighbouring, regional, and eastern powers, China being Iraq’s most important trade partner in the Eastern hemisphere. Iraq is also influenced by its relations with the Western powers — especially the United States, which has the greatest leverage with Iraq. Finally, Iraq interacts with international institutions.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Middle East Access Date Chinese Communist Party Arab World 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abid, Hishyar. (2010). Talabani: China’s “Special Friend”. [KurdishMedia] Available at: www.inarchive.com/page/2011-03-15/http://www.kurdmedia.com/article.aspx?Access Date: 19 August 2014.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Shaher, Omar. (2013). Iraq Aims to Increase Oil Output. [Al-Monitor] Available at: www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/03/iraq-increaseoil-output.html# Access Date: 20 July 2014.Google Scholar
  3. Arango, Tim and Clifford Krauss. ‘China Is Reaping Biggest Benefits of Iraq Oil Boom’, The New York Times, ( 2013, June 3 ). p. A1.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, Wayne. (2014). Despite its Investments, China Won’t Feel Big Energy Pinch from Iraq. [The Wall Street Journal–Business] Available at: blogs.wsj.com/economics/2014/06/23/despite-its-investments-china-wont-feel-bigenergy-pinch-from-iraq/Access Date: 19 August 2014.Google Scholar
  5. Balay, Huzan, E-mail Interview with Author (KRG Official–Department of Foreign Relations–Erbil), 12 July 2014.Google Scholar
  6. Bozorgmehr, Najmeh and Lucy Hornby. (2014). China Offersto Help Sunni Extremists. [Financial Times] Available at: www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3f4dc794-8141-11e4-b956–00144feabdc0.html#axzz3TlAyIIdq Access Date: 8 March 2015.Google Scholar
  7. Choucair, Shafeeq. (2013). China’s New Diplomacy towards the Middle East . [Aljazeera Center for Studies] Available at: studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2013/04/201341611204179344.htm Access Date: 18 August 2014.Google Scholar
  8. Doran, Michael, Pan -Arabism Before Nasser: Egyptian Power Politics and the Palestine Question, ( New York, Oxford University Press, 2002 ).Google Scholar
  9. Emadi, Hafizullah, ‘China and Iraq: Patterns of Interaction, 1960–1992’, Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 29, No. 53 (1994): pp. 3315–18.Google Scholar
  10. Ford, Peter. (2014). Why China Stays Quiet on Iraq Despite Being No. 1 Oil Investor . [The Christian Science Monitor] Available at: www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2014/0627/Why-China-stays-quiet-on-Iraq-despitebeing-no.-1-oil-investor-video Access Date: 6 March 2015.Google Scholar
  11. Ghafouri, Mahmoud. (2009). China’s Policy in the Middle East. [Middle East Policy Council] Available at: www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policyarchives/chinas-policy-persian-gulf?print Access Date: 3 March 2015.Google Scholar
  12. Gulf Research Center and The Nixon Center. (2010). China’s Growing Role In the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond . Available at: www.cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf Access Date: 23 August 2014.Google Scholar
  13. Hassan, Jawhar, E-mail Interview with Author (Consul, Iraqi Embassy–Beijing), 12 July 2014.Google Scholar
  14. Inside Story. (2014). Oil and Gas: At What Price? . [Aljazeera] Available at: www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2014/03/oil-gas-at-whatprice-2014320165719593411.html Access Date: 18 February 2015.Google Scholar
  15. International Energy Agency. (2014). Update on Overseas Investments by China’s National Oil Fields: Achievements and Challenges since 2011 . Available at: www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/PartnerCountrySeriesUpdateonOverseasInvestmentsbyChinasNationalOilCompanies. pdf Access Date: 11 July 2014.Google Scholar
  16. Iraqi Embassy–Beijing, China. (2013). The People’s Republic of China–Political Report 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Iraqi Embassy–Beijing, China. (2014). The People’s Republic of China–Political Report 2014.Google Scholar
  18. Iraq Trade Link News Agency. (2015). PetroChina opens its airport kin Missan . Available at: www.iraqtradelinknews.com/2015/01/petrochinaopens-its-airport-kin-missan.html Access Date: 5 March 2015.Google Scholar
  19. Iraq Project. (2014). Oil and Gas in Iraq . Available at: iraqproject.com/investment-in-iraq/oil-and-gas/Access Date: 20 July 2014.Google Scholar
  20. Kakei S., (2009). Kurds in Iraq: Through the Lenses of International Relations. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Norwich University, Northfield, VT.Google Scholar
  21. Kenny, Jack, Iraq War Paying Off–for China. [The New American]. Available at: www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/asia/item/15599-iraqwar-paying-off-for-china Access Date: 22 February 2015.Google Scholar
  22. Kurdistan Regional Government. (2014). Foreign Companies Resume Regular Activity in Kurdistan . Available at: cabinet.gov.krd/a/d. aspx? Access Date: 19 February 2015.Google Scholar
  23. Kurdistan Region Presidency. (2013). President Barzani Welcomes China’s Ambassador to Iraq . Available at: www.presidency.krd/english/articledisplay.aspx?id=Xrmz/ZUCdbM=Access Date: 25 February 2015.Google Scholar
  24. Langley, Jason. (2013). Politics and Religion in Iraq and Syria: What is the Ba’ath Party?. [Global Research] Available at: www.globalresearch.ca/thebaath-party-as-the-west-doesnt-want-you-to-know-it/5319120 Access Date: 7 March 2015.Google Scholar
  25. Lin, Christina. (2013). China’s Strategic Shift Toward The Region of the Four Seas: The Middle Kingdom Arrives in the Middle East. [Gloria Center: Global Research in International Affairs] Available at: www.gloria-center.org/2013/03/chinas-strategic-shift-toward-the-region-of-the-four-seas-the-middle-kingdomarrives-in-the-middle-east/Access Date: 19 August 2014.Google Scholar
  26. Ng, Teddy. (2014). China pledges to pump more funds into Iraq’s oil sector infrastructure . [South China Morning Post] Available at: www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1434025/china-pledges-pump-more-funds-iraqs-oil-sectorinfrastructure Access Date: 19 August 2014.Google Scholar
  27. People’s Daily Online. (2007). Iraqi president kicks off first China visit . Available at: english.people.com.cn/200706/21/eng20070621_386171.html Access Date: 19 August 2014.Google Scholar
  28. Rostoum, Elly. (2014). Dissecting China’s $1 Trillion in Investments Globally. [Foreign Policy Association] Available at: foreignpolicyblogs.com/2014/07/14/dissecting-chinas-1-trillion-in-investments-globally/Access Date: 5 February 2015.Google Scholar
  29. Sanford, Jonathan. (2003). Iraq’s Economy: Past, Present, Future (Order Code RL31944 ). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  30. Shareef, Mohammed. (2009). Kurdistan: Political Stability and Widespread Security. Article in the Italian language on the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and its emerging political influence in the Middle East. Published by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei in ‘Equilibri’ in cooperation with il Mulino, the premier Italian University Publisher, EQUILIBRI/a. XIII, n. 3, December 2009, pp. 440–444.Google Scholar
  31. Shichor, Yitzhak. (2006). China’s Kurdish Policy. [The Jamestown Foundation] Available at: www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3919&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=196&no_cache=1 >Access Date: 20 July 2014.Google Scholar
  32. Shikh Saaed, Bahaldin, E-mail Interview with Author (Iraqi Kurdish Businessman Based in China), 18 June 2014.Google Scholar
  33. US Consulate Kirkuk. (2005). China Woos Iraqi Kurds. [WikiLeaks] Available at: www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05KIRKUK300_a.html Access Date: 20 June 2014.Google Scholar
  34. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2015). Iraq was second-leading contributor to global oil supply growth during 2014. Available at: www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=19911 Access Date: 9 March 2015.Google Scholar
  35. Xinhuanet. (2011). China, Iraq pledge further reciprocal cooperation as PM visits. Available at: news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-07-/18/c_13993129.htm Access Date: 20 August 2014.Google Scholar
  36. Yao, Kuangyi, ‘Development of Sino-Arab Relations and the Evolution of China’s Middle East Policy in the New Era’, Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) Vol. 1, No. 1 (2007): pp. 3–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mohammed Shareef 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Shareef

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations