Advertisement

Youth Mobility and the Making of Europe, 1945–60

  • Richard Ivan Jobs
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)

Abstract

Odette Lesley, a young Londoner, marveled at all the people she had met from around the world during World War II. She found that these encounters gave her a profound desire to travel when the conflict was over, and this was something she felt she shared with others her age. ‘We realized that there was a very big new world out there, that we knew nothing about at all. All I knew, for instance, was my little bit of north London, where I’d been brought up: the local streets, my neighbors, and the local dance hall. But I was hearing these marvelous stories, and they opened up horizons to such an extent that I thought I might even see those places one day. I might go there. And I felt a strong sense of independence as a girl that I’d never felt before. It was so exciting, I felt anything was possible’.1 Lesley’s enthusiastic expression of liberation and autonomy tied to mobility and international travel was typical for the period and for her age as young Europeans began to travel on an unprecedented scale in the years following the war.

Keywords

European Economic Community International Travel Postwar Period Interwar Period Foreign Travel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    As quoted in J. Mack and S. Humphries (1985) London at War: The Making of Modern London: 1939–1945 (London: Sidgwick & Johnson), p. 161.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Indeed, there was a tremendous amount of internationalist activity in the interwar period. See, for example, J. I. Reis (2010) ‘Cultural Internationalism at the Cité Universitaire: International Education between the First and Second World Wars’, History of Education, 39 (2), 155–73;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. D. Laqua (ed.) (2011) Internationalism Reconsidered: Transnational Ideas and Movements between the World Wars (London: I. B. Tauris).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    As quoted in O. Coburn (1950) Youth Hostel Story (London: The National Council of Social Service), pp. 168–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    As quoted in A. Grassl and G. Heath (1982) The Magic Triangle: A Short History of the World Youth Hostel Movement (International Youth Hostel Federation), pp. 89–90.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    As quoted in H. Q. Röling (1979) Idealisme en toerisme: 50 jaar jeugdherbergen 1929–1979 (Amsterdam: Uitgave NJHC), p. 27.Google Scholar
  7. 16.
    UNESCO REC/01, ‘Youth Service Camps’ (1947), Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Newsletter, 1 (3), 1–2.Google Scholar
  8. 21.
    See S. Stubbe (2009) ‘Der Wiederbeginn des Jugendherbergswesens nach 1945’ in J. Reulecke and B. Stambolis (eds) 100 Jahre Jugendherbergen 1909–2009 (Essen: Klartext Verlag), pp. 223–37.Google Scholar
  9. 22.
    HIA, ‘Minutes of the First Post-war Conference of the International Youth Hostel Federation’, Loch Lomond, 4–6 September 1946, 4. See also, S. Stubbe (2009) ‘Die internationale Arbeit des Jugendherbergswerks in der frühen Nachkriegszeit’ in J. Reulecke and B. Stambolis (eds) 100 Jahre Jugendherbergen 1909–2009 (Essen: Klartext Verlag), pp. 241–50.Google Scholar
  10. 27.
    G. Heath (1954) ‘The Growth of the Youth Hostel Movement’ in G. Heath (ed.) The International Youth Hostel Manual (Copenhagen: International Youth Hostel Federation), p. 16.Google Scholar
  11. 32.
    A. Confino (2006) Germany as a Culture of Remembrance: Promises and Limits of Writing History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press);Google Scholar
  12. S. Levsen (2014) ‘Kontrollierte Grenzüberschreitungen. Jungendreisen als Friedenserziehung nach 1945 — Konzepte und Ambivalenzen in deutsch-französischer Perspektive’ in T. Kössler and A. Schwitanski (eds) Freiden lernen. Friedenspädagogik und Erziehung im 20. Jahrhundert (Essen), pp. 181–200.Google Scholar
  13. 34.
    H. Baumann (1953) ‘Die Stellung Deutschlands im internationalen Reiseverkehr’, Der Fremdenverkehr, 19/20, 4.Google Scholar
  14. 38.
    R. Koshar (2000) ‘Fodor’s Germany’ from German Travel Cultures (Oxford: Berg), pp. 172, 174.Google Scholar
  15. 39.
    K. Jarausch (2006) After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945–1995 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 105, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 40.
    B. Davis (2010) ‘A Whole World Opening Up: Transcultural Contact, Difference, and the Politicization of the New Left’ in B. Davis, M. Klimke, W. Mausbach, and C. MacDougall (eds) Changing the World, Changing Oneself: Political Protest and Collective Identities in West Germany and the U.S. in the 1960s and 1970s (New York: Berghahn Books), p. 440.Google Scholar
  17. 41.
    J. Reulecke (1997) ‘Rückkehr in die Ferne: Statt eines Vorworts’ in J. Reulecke (ed.) Rückkehr in die Ferne: Die deutsche Jugend in der Nachkriegszeit und das Ausland (München: Juventa Verlag), pp. 7–8.Google Scholar
  18. 44.
    N. Schwarte and J. Reulecke (1997) ‘Fernweh und Großfahrten in der Bündischen Jugend der Nachkriegszeit’ in J. Reulecke (ed.) Rückkehr in die Ferne, pp. 151–68, quotation 162.Google Scholar
  19. 46.
    R. Schönhammer (1996) ‘Unabhängiger Jugendtourismus in der Nachkriegszeit’ in H. Spode (ed.) Goldstrand und Teutonengrill: Kultur- und Sozialgeschichte des Tourismus in Deutschland 1945 bis 1989 (Berlin: Institut für Tourismus), pp. 117–28.Google Scholar
  20. 49.
    See K. Jarausch (1995) ‘Postnationale Nation: Zum Identitätswandel der Deutschen 1945–1995’, Historicum: Zeitschrift für Geschicte, 30, 30–5;Google Scholar
  21. H. Schissler (1997) ‘Postnationality — Luxury of the Privileged? A West German Generational Perspective’, German Politics and Society, 15 (2), 8–27.Google Scholar
  22. 51.
    As quoted in T. Judt (2005) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (New York: Penguin), p. 275.Google Scholar
  23. 52.
    J. Jousselin (1957) Youth in the Western European Union (Western European Union), p. 48.Google Scholar
  24. 53.
    C. Norwig (2012) ‘“Unser Paß ist die Europa-Fahne”: Junge Reisende und europäische Integration in den 1950er Jahren’ in F. Bösch, A. Brill, and F. Greiner (eds) Europabilder im 20. Jahrhundert. Entstehung an der Peripherie (Gottingen), pp. 216–36.Google Scholar
  25. 54.
    For more on the European Youth Campaign, particularly its rationale, see C. Norwig (2014) ‘A First European Generation? The Myth of Youth and European Integration in the Fifties’, Diplomatic History, 38 (2), 251–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 56.
    HAEU UEF-175, ‘Campaign de l’amitié international’; HAEU ME-1370, ‘Concours d’été organize par la CEJ’. See also, F-X. Lafféach (2009) ‘The Young European Federalists and the Emergence of a European Consciousness, 1948–1972’ in M. Rasmussen and A-C. Knudsen (eds) The Road to a United Europe: Interpretations of the Process of European Integration (Brussels: Peter Lang), pp. 39–51.Google Scholar
  27. 58.
    Lafféach, ‘The Young European Federalists’, pp. 39–51; J-M. Palayret (1995) ‘Eduquer les jeunes à l’Union: La Campagne européene de la jeunesse (1951–1958)’, Journal of European Integration History, 1 (2), 47–60;Google Scholar
  28. for details on how the CIA funded the movement see chapter 16 in R. Aldrich (2001) The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (London: John Murray), pp. 342–70;Google Scholar
  29. S. Weissman, P. Kelly, and M. Hosenball (1978) ‘The CIA Backs the Common Market’, in P. Agee and L. Wolf (eds) Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe (Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart), pp. 201–3.Google Scholar
  30. 60.
    ‘Students Burn Frontier Post: “Europe Is Here”’, The Manchester Guardian 7 August 1950, 5; HAEU UEF-176, ‘Wissembourg: Le Bourg Blanc’; ‘Grenzen Weg’ Het Parool, 14 January 1952 clipping. Archief Hendrika Schefter at the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam (hereafter IISG); HAEU ME-1357, ‘Stages, Camps, Manilestation et Autres Activités Politiques’; HAEU PD-10, ‘5.000 jeunes à la Haye’ in Jeune Europe, n.13, 20 Octobre 1953, 8. See also D. Preda (1996) ‘La Jeunesse fédéralistes européennes’ in S. Pistone (ed.) I movimenti per l’unità europea 1954–1969 (Pavia: Università di Pavia), pp. 229–59.Google Scholar
  31. 67.
    M. Ruff (2005) The Wayward Flock: Catholic Youth in Postwar West Germany, 1945–1955 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press), p. 63.Google Scholar
  32. 72.
    C. Endy (2004) Cold War Holidays: American Tourism in Trance (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press), p. 131.Google Scholar
  33. 73.
    Dr Danckwortt (1960) ‘International Exchange Programs for Young People’ in UNESCO Youth Institute, Analysis of the Impact of International Travel and Exchange Programmes on Young People, 4.Google Scholar
  34. 77.
    A. Schildt (2006) ‘Across the Border: West German Youth Travel to Western Europe’ in A. Schildt and D. Siegfried (eds) Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European Societies, 1960–1980 (New York: Berghahn Books), p. 152.Google Scholar
  35. 78.
    R. Inglehart (1970) ‘The New Europeans: Inward or Outward-Looking?’ International Organization, 24 (1), 129–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 79.
    R. Inglehart (1967) ‘An End to European Integration?’ The American Political Science Review, 61 (1), 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 80.
    R. Inglehart (1971) ‘Changing Value Priorities and European Integration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 10, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 81.
    The best English language book on the flood is R. Clark (2008) Dark Water: Art, Disaster, and Redemption in Florence (New York: Random House).Google Scholar
  39. 82.
    E. Angelis (2006) Angeli del fango: La meglio gioventù nella Firenze dell’alluvione (Firenze: Giunti), p. 202.Google Scholar
  40. 83.
    R. Clark, Dark Water; see also K. Taylor (1967) Diary of a Florence Flood (New York: Simon and Schuster).Google Scholar
  41. 86.
    M. Honeck and G. Rosenberg (2014) ‘Transnational Generations: Organizing Youth in the Cold War’, Diplomatic History, 38 (2), 233–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 87.
    K. Patel (2013) ‘Provicialising European Union: Co-operation and Integration in Europe in Historical Perspective’, Contemporary European History, 22 (4), 649–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 88.
    M. Conway and K. Patel (eds) (2010) Europeanization in the Twentieth Century: Historical Approaches (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  44. 89.
    W. Kaiser (2005) ‘Transnational Western Europe since 1945’ in W. Kaiser and P. Starie (eds) Transnational European Union: Towards a Common Political Space (London: Routledge), pp. 17–35.Google Scholar
  45. 90.
    T. Christie (1963) ‘Tourism and the Common Market’, ASFA Travel News, 33, 56–7.Google Scholar
  46. 93.
    T. Nugent (1756) The Grand Four, or, a Journey through the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France (London: Millar).Google Scholar
  47. 94.
    L. Wolff (1994) Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press).Google Scholar
  48. 96.
    P-Y. Saunier (2013) Transnational History: Theory and History (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  49. 97.
    H. Lelebvre (1991) The Production of Space, trans. D. Nicholson-Smith (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing).Google Scholar
  50. 98.
    F. Braudel (1976) The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, trans. S. Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row), p. 276.Google Scholar
  51. 99.
    L. Pries (2001) ‘The Approach of Transnational Social Spaces: Responding to New Configurations of the Social and the Spatial’ in L. Pries (ed.) New Transnational Social Spaces: International Migration and Transnational Companies in the Early Twenty-First Century (London: Routledge), pp. 3–33.Google Scholar
  52. 100.
    T. Faist (2004) ‘The Border-Crossing Expansion ol Social Space: Concepts, Questions and Topics’ in T. Faist and E. Özveren (eds) Transnational Social Spaces: Agents, Networks and Institutions (Aldershot: Ashgate), pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  53. 101.
    For more on the varieties ol Europeanization see M. Conway and K. Patel (eds) (2010), Europeanization in the Twentieth Century: Historical Approaches (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 102.
    F. Schimmelfennig (2005) ‘Transnational Socialization: Community-Building in an Integrated Europe’ in W. Kaiser and P. Starie (eds) Transnational European Union: Towards a Common Political Space (London: Routledge), pp. 61–82.Google Scholar
  55. 103.
    For more on the interrelationship between internationalism and transnation-alism see D. Laqua (ed.) (2011) Internationalism Reconsidered: Transnational Ideas and Movements between the World Wars (London: I.B. Tauris).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard Ivan Jobs 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Ivan Jobs

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations