Introduction: Democracy, Gender and Citizenship in Post-communist Russia

  • Andrea Chandler
Part of the Gender and Politics series book series (GAP)


One of the great innovations of the twentieth century was the expansion of the modern welfare state. Social welfare policies may include the provision of old-age pensions, unemployment benefits, universal education, and child care support. While states varied a great deal in the kinds of programmes that they established, the notion of the provider state was associated with the peace and prosperity of the post-World War II era. Historically, the expansion of the welfare state was closely linked to the notion of increased democratic participation.1 In the West, political inclusion of citizens led to demands for state measures to promote social equality.2 In the twenty-first century, citizen groups increasingly demand not just a ‘safety net’ to tide them over in times of hardship, but also proactive forms of social inclusion. These supports include assistance for the integration of ethnic and religious minorities, equal access for gays and lesbians, and accommodation for people with disabilities.3


Social Welfare Welfare State Gender Equality Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Social Welfare System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Andrea Chandler 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Chandler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceCarleton UniversityCanada

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