Advertisement

The Energy Security of Japan after Fukushima 3/11

  • Frank Umbach
Part of the Energy, Climate and the Environment book series (ECE)

Abstract

Energy (supply) security has always been a major security concern of Japanese governments, both before and after WWII. Securing access to raw materials and oil, for instance, drove Japan into WWII. As the third-largest economy in the world, the fourth-largest energy consumer, the third-largest oil consumer and importer, the second-largest coal importer as well as the world’s largest LNG importer (already before the Fukushima nuclear catastrophe in 2011), Japan’s lack of domestic energy resources, has determined the country’s energy policies domestically as well as driving its energy foreign policies abroad. The expansion of nuclear power since the oil crisis in 1973–74 is the result of Japan’s heavy dependence for oil and LNG from the Middle East, which accounts for almost 90 percent of its imports.

Keywords

International Atomic Energy Agency Energy Policy Japanese Government Nuclear Plant Energy Security 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich, D.P. (2011) ‘Future Fission’, Global Asia, June 22, 2011.Google Scholar
  2. Bogle, S. (2012) ‘Aussie LNG at Risk as Japan Shakes Up Asian Pricing Model’, Natural Gas Daily/Interfax.com, October 2, 2012, 1, 1–2.Google Scholar
  3. Byrne, J. (2012a) ‘OECD Advises Japan to Restart Idled Reactors’, Natural Gas Daily (Interfax), April 23, 2012.Google Scholar
  4. Byrne, J. (2012b) ‘Japan LNG Consumption May Double by 2030’, Natural Gas Daily/Interfax.com, June 7, 2012.Google Scholar
  5. Christoffels, J.-H. (2007) ‘Earthquake Alarm – The Kashiwazaki Nuclear Incident and the Consequences for Japan’s Nuclear Policy’, Clingendael International Energy Programme, Briefing Paper.Google Scholar
  6. Curtis, G. (2011) ‘Japanese Leadership Fails at Post-Disaster Reconstruction Test’, East Asia Forum, August 14, 2011.Google Scholar
  7. Curtis, G. (2012) ‘Stop Blaming Fukushima on Japan’s Culture’, East Asia Forum, July 11, 2012.Google Scholar
  8. DeWit, A. (2013) ‘An Emerging Fukushima Model?’, Nautilus-Special Report .Google Scholar
  9. Dusinberre, M. (2011) ‘Is Japan Really Winding Back on Nuclear?’, Guardian, May 12, 2011.Google Scholar
  10. Economist, The (2011) ‘Bright Ideas Needed’, September 17, 2011.Google Scholar
  11. IA (2012) Japan. Country Analysis Briefs, June 4, 2012.Google Scholar
  12. Endo, T. (2011) ‘Japan Should not Abandon Nuclear Power’, East Asia-Forum, September 23, 2011.Google Scholar
  13. Fackler, M. (2011a) ‘Cables Show U.S. Concerns on Japan’s Disaster Readiness’, New York Times, May 3, 2011.Google Scholar
  14. Fackler, M. (2011b) ‘Nuclear Watchdog Says Japan Underestimated Tsunami Danger’, New York Times, June 1, 2011.Google Scholar
  15. Financial Times (2012a) ‘Fukushima Crisis “Made in Japan”’, M. Dickie, July 5, 2012.Google Scholar
  16. Financial Times (2013a) ‘Safety Fears Grow at Japan Nuclear Plant’, May 27, 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Funabashi, Y. and K. Kitazawa (2012) ‘Lessons from Japan’s Nuclear Accident’, East Asia Forum, March 26, 2012.Google Scholar
  18. Guardian (2013) ‘Fukushima Two Years On’, March 6, 2013.Google Scholar
  19. Institute for 21st Century Energy/U.S. Chamber of Commerce (2012) International Index of Energy Security Risk, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. Katz, R. (2012) ‘Noda’s Confused Nuclear Policy’, East Asia Forum, October 26, 2012.Google Scholar
  21. Kumar, A. (2013) ‘Expensive LNG Constrains Japan’s Utilities’ Choices’, Natural Gas Daily/Interfax.com, May 24, 2013, p. 6.Google Scholar
  22. Kurokawa, S. (2013) ‘Japan’s New Direction On Climate Change’, East Asia Forum, July 3, 2013.Google Scholar
  23. Lippert, S. (2012a) ‘Japan Ignored Nuclear Warning and Believed the Myth of Absolute Safety’, Geopolitical Information Service, June 7, 2012.Google Scholar
  24. Lippert, S. (2012b) ‘Japan Moves towards Nuclear Exit, but Postpones Final Decision’, Geopolitical Information Service, September 26, 2012.Google Scholar
  25. Lippert, S. (2013a) ‘New Quake Could Cost Japan US$2.3 Trillion’, Geopolitical Information Service, April 22, 2013.Google Scholar
  26. Lippert, S. (2013b) ‘Pacific Tension over Planned Start-up of Japanese Nuclear Plant’, Geopolitical Information Service, June 10, 2013.Google Scholar
  27. Ministry of the Environment (2011) Study of Potential for the Introduction of Renewable Energy (FY 2010) (Tokyo: MoE).Google Scholar
  28. Natural Gas Daily (2011) ‘Japan to Double Role in Foreign Gas, Oil Projects in 20 Years’, Interfax.com, September 28, 2011, p. 6.
  29. New York Times (2011a) ‘Japan Extended Reactor’s Life, Despite Warning’, H. Tabuchi, N. Onishi, and K. Belson, March 21, 2011.Google Scholar
  30. New York Times (2011b) ‘Safety Myth Left Japan Ripe for Nuclear Crisis’, N. Onishi, June 24, 2011.Google Scholar
  31. New York Times (2011c) ‘Japan’s Nuclear Future in the Balance’, A. Pollack, May 9, 2011.Google Scholar
  32. New York Times (2011d) ‘In Nuclear Crisis, Crippling Mistrust’, N. Onishi/M. Fackler, June 12, 2011.Google Scholar
  33. New York Times (2011e) ‘Japanese Officials Ignored or Concealed Dangers’, N. Onishi/M. Fackler, May 16, 2011.Google Scholar
  34. New York Times (2012a) ‘Japan Power Company Admits Failings on Plant Precautions’, October 12, 2012.Google Scholar
  35. New York Times (2012b) ‘Japan’s Former Leader Condemns Nuclear Power’, May 28, 2012.Google Scholar
  36. New York Times (2012c) ‘Inquiry Declares Fukushima Crisis a Man-Made Disaster’, H. Tabuchi, July 5, 2012.Google Scholar
  37. New York Times (2013a) ‘Fukushima Blackout Hints at Plant’s Vulnerability’, March 19, 2013.Google Scholar
  38. New York Times (2013b) ‘Japanese Cabinet Proposes Energy Sector Overhauls’, April 2, 2013.Google Scholar
  39. New York Times (2013c) ‘Japan to Begin Restarting Idled Nuclear Plants, Leader Says’, M. Fackler/H. Tabuchi.Google Scholar
  40. OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency (2012) Japan’s Compensating System for Nuclear Damage (Paris: OECD/NEA).Google Scholar
  41. Onishi, M. (2011) ‘Japan Revives a Sea Barrier that Failed to Hold’, New York Times, November 2, 2011.Google Scholar
  42. Onishi, N. and K. Belson (2011) ‘Culture of Complicity Tied to Stricken Nuclear Plant’, New York Times, April 26, 2011.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, S.A. (2011) ‘Japan’s Nuclear Quandary’, East Asia Forum, August 9, 2011.Google Scholar
  44. Umbach, F. (2006) ‘Die Energiepolitik Japans’, in G. Xuewu and K. Kupfer (eds) Die Energiepolitik Ostasiens (Frankfurt/M: Campus-Verlag), pp. 41–60.Google Scholar
  45. Umbach, F. (2007) ‘Die Globalisierung der japanischen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik’, in M. Pohl and I. Wieczorek (eds) Japan 2007. Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (Berlin: Verein für sozialwissenschaftlcihe Japanforschung e.V.), pp. 125–62.Google Scholar
  46. Umbach, F. (2012) ‘Islands Dispute Puts Spotlight on China’s Rare Earths Strategy’, Geopolitical Information Service, December 28, 2012.Google Scholar
  47. Umbach, F. (2013a) ‘Japan’s Plan to Reduce Dependence on China’s Raw Materials’, Geopolitical Information Service, January 15, 2013.Google Scholar
  48. Umbach, F. (2013b) ‘Die deutsche Energiewende in internationaler Perspektive’, Politische Bildung, 2, 98–126.Google Scholar
  49. Umbach, F. (2013c) ‘Deutschlands Energiewende. Gesellschaftliche Hypersensibilität und der Verlust strategischer Versorgungssicherheit’, in C. Daase, S. Engert and J. Junk (eds) Verunsicherte Gesellschaft – überforderter Staat (Frankfurt/M. and New York: Campus Verlag), pp. 235–57.Google Scholar
  50. World Economic Forum (2012a) ‘New Energy Architecture: Enabling an Effective Transition – Case Study: Japan’. In collaboration with Accenture, Geneva.Google Scholar
  51. World Economic Forum (2012b) ‘New Energy Architecture: Enabling an Effective Transition. Main Study’. In collaboration with Accenture, Geneva.Google Scholar
  52. Yomiuiri Shimbun (2012) ‘Even with N-Power, Reducing Emissions is Hard’, May 24, 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Frank Umbach 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Umbach

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations