One Dao—Many Ways

Daoist Approaches to Religious Diversity
  • Livia Kohn


Daoism is a complex religious tradition of manifold levels that encompass philosophical speculation, ritual and organizational structures, as well as self-cultivation and personal spiritual practices. Itself a multifaceted religion, Daoism has always lived and worked in an environment of religious diversity. Even the ancient philosophers formed but one school of many in pre-Han China, and the first organizations that arose in the second-century CE were surrounded by Confucian officialdom and popular religious practices. Over the centuries, Daoists of all kinds continued to interact variously with other creeds and had an especially stormy relationship with the incoming foreign religion of Buddhism.


Religious Diversity Seventh Century Philosophical Speculation Middle Kingdom Central Asian State 
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© Perry Schmidt-Leukel and Joachim Gentz 2013

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  • Livia Kohn

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