Exile, whether geographical or metaphorical, was one of the most important sources of creative inspiration during the twentieth century. In Reflections on Exile and Other Essays, Edward Said presented the three stages of exile: In the first stage, the exile longs for the geographical home from which he is estranged, which he feels is the sweetest place on the earth; in the second stage, the exile’s expansive humanitarian spirit learns to regard the whole world as home; and in the third stage, the exile comes to regard the whole world as a foreign place. Only then does he achieve the critical detachment necessary for the uniqueness of creative vision.1


Cultural Revolution Vagabond State Historical Violence Socialist Past Critical Detachment 
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    Edward Said, Reflections on Exile and Other Essays (Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2002), 366.Google Scholar
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© Hong Zeng 2012

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  • Hong Zeng

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