Of Constitutions and Constitutionalism: Trying to Build a New Political Order in China, 1908–1949

  • Xiaohong Xiao-Planes
Part of the The Sciences Po Series in International Relations and Political Economy book series (SPIRP)


The concept of constitutional government was introduced in the 1890s in China by reform activists eager to change the imperial institutions in order to counter more forcefully the encroachments of Western and Japanese powers. The idea of a “Constitution” comprising a set of rules respected both by the ruling and the ruled, and instituting a parliament expected to reinforce the bonds between the sovereign and the people increasingly became a powerful mobilizing force among social elites and reformers within the state apparatus.


Political Order Progressive Party United Front Constitutional System Nationalist Party 
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Copyright information

© Stéphanie Balme and Michael W. Dowdle 2009

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  • Xiaohong Xiao-Planes

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