Advertisement

Formal Democracy and Its Alternatives in the Philippines: Parties, Elections and Social Movements

  • Joel Rocamora
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

The Philippines has the most persistently undemocratic democracy in Asia. Except for the period of dictatorship under Ferdinand Marcos between 1972 and 1986, the Philippines has had a functioning democracy since independence from the United States in 1946.1 At the same time, a small group of powerful families has dominated politics and kept the economic benefits of power to themselves. Many analysts use the modifier ‘elite’ when referring to Philippine democracy. Effective participation by citizens outside of elections is limited. Unlike Malaysia and Singapore (much more obviously unlike the military dictatorship in Burma) with their Internal Security Acts, the Philippine state does not impose too many formal limits to the self-organization of disadvantaged groups. But a combination of bureaucratic rules and informal means including violence continues to make organizing difficult; without effective popular pressure, government is generally not accountable.

Keywords

Central Government Political Party International Capitalism Party System Local Politics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bolongaita, E. (1995), The Breakdown of Philippine Democracy in 1972: A Comparative Institutional Analysis, PhD Dissertation, Indiana: University of Notre Dame.Google Scholar
  2. David, R. (1994), ‘Redemocratisation in the Wake of the 1986 People Power Revolution: Errors and Dilemmas’, Kasarinlan 11(3–4): 20.Google Scholar
  3. Doronila, A. (1992), The State, Economic Transformation and Political Change in the Philippines, 1946–1972, Singapore: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Fukuyama, F. (1989), ‘The End of History’, The National Interest 16, Summer: 3–18.Google Scholar
  5. Kimura, M. (1990), ‘Philippine Peasant and Labor Organizations in Electoral Politics: Players of Transitional Politics’, Pilipinas: A Journal of Philippine Politics Spring: 29–78.Google Scholar
  6. Lande, C. (1969), ‘Brief History of Political Parties’, in Jose Abueva and Raul De Guzman, Foundations and Dynamics of Filipino Government and Politics Manila: Bookmark: 151–57.Google Scholar
  7. Leones, E.B. and M. Moraleda (1996), ‘Philippines’, in W. Sachsenroder and U.E. Frings, eds., Political Party Systems and Democratic Development in East and Southeast Asia, Vol. 1, Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate: 289–342.Google Scholar
  8. Machado, K.G. (1974), ‘From Traditional Faction to Machine: Changing Patterns of Political Leadership and Organization in the Rural Philippines’, Journal ofAsian Studies, 33(4).Google Scholar
  9. McCoy, A. (1995), Ana Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines, Quezon City: Ateno University Press.Google Scholar
  10. —(1991), ‘The Restoration of Planter Power in La Carlota City’, in B.J. Kerkvliet and R. Mohares, eds., From Marcos to Aquino: Local Perspectives on Political Transition in the Philippines, Quezon City: Ateno De manila University Press: 105–42.Google Scholar
  11. Mastura, M.C. (1995), ‘The Party List System Act of 1994’, in L. Dejillas, ed., Role of Political Parties in Government and Society, Manila: Institute for Development Research and Studies & Konrad Adenauer Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. Miranda, F.B. et al. (1994), The Post-Aquino Philippines: In Search of Political Stability, Diliman, Q.C.: Social Weather Stations.Google Scholar
  13. Rocamora, J. (1997), The Constitutional Amendment Debate — Reforming Political Institutions, Reshaping Political Culture, Manila: Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  14. Shantz, A.A. (1972), Political Parties: The Changing Foundations of Philippine Democracy, PhD Dissertation, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  15. Sidel, J. (1995), Coercion, Capital, and the Post-Colonial State: Bossism in the Postwar Philippines, PhD Dissertation, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  16. Tancangco, L. (1988), ‘The Electoral System and Political Parties in the Philippines’, in R. De Guzman and M. Reforma, eds., Government and Politics in the Philippines, Singapore: Oxford University Press: 77–112.Google Scholar
  17. Wurfel, David (1998), ‘The Party-List Election: Sectoral Failure or National Success’? Political Brief, 6(2): 1–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Rocamora

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations